doc/makefile-variables.txt
author Mike Sullivan <Mike.Sullivan@Oracle.COM>
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This is a guide to explain various useful variables in Userland component
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Makefiles.  To distinguish these from the Makefile(s) that are part of each
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component distribution, the latter will be referred to as native Makefiles.
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The following are the basics that just about every Makefile should have.
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* COMPONENT_NAME is typically a short name (e.g., vim).
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* COMPONENT_VERSION is typically numbers separated by dots (e.g. 7.3).
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* COMPONENT_SRC is where the archive is extracted.  A common value for this is
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  "$(COMPONENT_NAME)-$(COMPONENT_VERSION)".
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* COMPONENT_PROJECT_URL is the general web site for the component.
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* COMPONENT_ARCHIVE is the base name of the archive to be downloaded.  A common
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  value for this is "$(COMPONENT_SRC).tar.gz".
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* COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_HASH is typically "sha256:" followed by the first output
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  field of `sha256sum $(COMPONENT_ARCHIVE)`.
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* COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_URL is where the archive can be downloaded from.  This is
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  typically constructed from $(COMPONENT_PROJECT_URL) and $(COMPONENT_ARCHIVE).
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* COMPONENT_BUGDB is the lower-case rendering of the BugDB cat/subcat.
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These two are both initialized in make-rules/shared-macros.mk rather than any
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component-level Makefile, but are frequently referenced from the latter.
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* COMPONENT_DIR is the top-level directory of the given component in question.
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* SOURCE_DIR is set to $(COMPONENT_DIR)/$(COMPONENT_SRC).
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Additional pre/post configure, build, or install actions can be specified in
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a component Makefile by setting them in one of the following macros.  None of
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these have default values.  These are mostly used for miscellaneous set-up or
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clean-up tweaks as their names suggest.
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* COMPONENT_PRE_CONFIGURE_ACTION is used by several components to clone a
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  source directory.
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* COMPONENT_POST_CONFIGURE_ACTION
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* COMPONENT_PRE_BUILD_ACTION
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* COMPONENT_POST_BUILD_ACTION
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* COMPONENT_PRE_INSTALL_ACTION
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* COMPONENT_POST_INSTALL_ACTION
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* COMPONENT_PRE_TEST_ACTION
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* COMPONENT_POST_TEST_ACTION
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If component specific make targets need to be used for build or install or
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test, they can be specified via the following.
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* COMPONENT_BUILD_TARGETS is not usually set because the default target of most
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  open source software is the equivalent of a 'build' target.  This needs to be
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  set when building the software requires a different target than the default.
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  You should not override make macros here, but in COMPONENT_BUILD_ARGS.
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* COMPONENT_INSTALL_TARGETS has a default value of "install".  Very few
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  components need to alter this.
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* COMPONENT_TEST_TARGETS has a default value of "check".  Several components
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  need to set this to "test".
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* COMPONENT_BUILD_ARGS is probably the mostly useful variable here for solving
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  subtle build issues.  When you need to override a MACRO set in the native
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  Makefile of a component, do so by adding something like:
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     COMPONENT_BUILD_ARGS += MKDIR="$(MKDIR)"
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  Quoting is often important because values with white-space can be split up,
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  yielding the wrong results.
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* COMPONENT_BUILD_ENV is for when you just need to override things in the
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  calling environment, like PATH.
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* COMPONENT_INSTALL_ARGS is mainly used for altering target directories.
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* COMPONENT_INSTALL_ENV is mainly used for altering target directories.
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* COMPONENT_PUBLISH_ENV is so far only used to work around Python issues when
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  used by "pkgdepend generate", though the variable may be extended in the
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  future for general "gmake publish" usage.
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* COMPONENT_TEST_ARGS is little used.
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* COMPONENT_TEST_ENV is mainly used for altering PATH and friends.
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* COMPONENT_POST_UNPACK_ACTION is for making minor alterations to the unpacked
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  source directory before any patching has taken place.  It should almost never
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  be used.
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* COMPONENT_PREP_ACTION is used to make alterations to the unpacked and patched
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  source.  It should be used with care.
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* CONFIGURE_DEFAULT_DIRS should be "yes" or "no".  A value of "yes" (the
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  default) will trigger the following being passed to CONFIGURE_OPTIONS as
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  parameters to corresponding options.
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  * CONFIGURE_BINDIR is the value for the --bindir= option.
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  * CONFIGURE_LIBDIR is the value for the --libdir= option.
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  * CONFIGURE_MANDIR is the value for the --mandir= option.
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  * CONFIGURE_SBINDIR is the value for the --sbindir= option.
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* CONFIGURE_ENV is mainly used for passing CFLAGS and other common Makefile
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  variables to configure.  When should this be used as opposed to
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  CONFIGURE_OPTIONS and COMPONENT_BUILD_{ARGS,ENV}?  In general, you want
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  to tell configure how to build the software using CONFIGURE_OPTIONS.  But
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  sometimes you need to pass values in via the calling environment.  On rare
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  occasions, you still need to do things like override MACRO settings in the
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  generated Makefiles with COMPONENT_BUILD_ARGS.
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* CONFIGURE_LOCALEDIR is a cousin of the other *DIR variables above, but
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  rarely used and hence not triggered by CONFIGURE_DEFAULT_DIRS.
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* CONFIGURE_OPTIONS is extremely useful, possibly our most used "add-on"
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  variable, for passing various options to configure.  These tend to vary per
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  component, but --enable-foo and --disable-foo for various values of foo are
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  quite common.
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* CONFIGURE_PREFIX is the prefix for the various *DIR variables above.  Its
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  default is "/usr"; set it if some other value (e.g., "/usr/gnu") is needed.
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* CONFIGURE_SCRIPT should be set if the default "$(SOURCE_DIR)/configure" is
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  unsuitable for whatever reason.
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* studio_OPT has a default value of "-xO4".  Occasional bugs in the optimizer
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  have been found which have required altering this to "-xO3".  There are also
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  studio_OPT.$(MACH).$(BITS) versions of this available if greater specificity
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  is needed.
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* TPNO is the Third Party number (i.e., a numeric value): the License
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  Technology from the Product Lifecycle Suite tool.  This should be used
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  in the common case when there is just one TPNO for a component.  We
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  recommend that this be near the top of any Makefile, just below the
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  various COMPONENT_foo definitions.
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* TPNO_foo is for the rare case (~3% of components) when a component has
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  more than one TPNO.  Each one should have a separate short but descriptive
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  name substituted for "foo".  This likewise should be near the top of any
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  Makefile, just below the various COMPONENT_foo definitions, and it must
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  also be before the inclusion of ips.mk .
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---
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Now switching from explaining the function of specific variables to a more
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general discussion about how to use them to solve problems.  One method that
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has served time and again is adding a level of indirection.  For example,
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when Python 3 came along, we decided to build it 64-bit only, which meant
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its various modules also needed to be built 64-bit only.  But many of them
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had BUILD_32_and_64 in their native Makefile.  So how to tweak that macro
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to do one thing for Python 2.x but another for 3.x?  JBeck spent an entire
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day trying various combinations that seemed right, but none of them worked.
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Then Norm pointed out that changing PYTHON_VERSIONS from "3.4 2.7 2.6" to
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$(PYTHON3_VERSIONS) and $(PYTHON2_VERSIONS) which in turn were "3.4" and
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"2.7 2.6" would do the trick.  I.e., adding a level of indirection solved
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the problem, as it allowed $(PYTHON_VERSIONS) to be used to specify 64-bit
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macros but $(PYTHON2_VERSIONS) to specify 32-bit macros.  There are many
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other places where constructs like this are used.