doc/makefile-variables.txt
author Shawn Walker-Salas <shawn.walker@oracle.com>
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This is a guide to explain various useful variables in Userland component
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Makefiles.  To distinguish these from the Makefile(s) that are part of each
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component distribution, the latter will be referred to as native Makefiles.
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The following are the basics that just about every Makefile should have.
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* COMPONENT_NAME is typically a short name (e.g., vim).
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* COMPONENT_VERSION is typically numbers separated by dots (e.g. 7.3).
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* COMPONENT_SRC is where the archive is extracted.  A common value for this is
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  "$(COMPONENT_NAME)-$(COMPONENT_VERSION)".
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* COMPONENT_PROJECT_URL is the general web site for the component.
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* COMPONENT_ARCHIVE is the base name of the archive to be downloaded.  A common
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  value for this is "$(COMPONENT_SRC).tar.gz".
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* COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_HASH is typically "sha256:" followed by the first output
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  field of `sha256sum $(COMPONENT_ARCHIVE)`.
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* COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_URL is where the archive can be downloaded from.  This is
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  typically constructed from $(COMPONENT_PROJECT_URL) and $(COMPONENT_ARCHIVE).
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* COMPONENT_SIG_URL is the URL where the PGP signature for $(COMPONENT_ARCHIVE)
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  can be found.  This can be used in addition to the hash in
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  $(COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_HASH) to verify the correctness of the archive.  If
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  COMPONENT_SIG_URL is present, then COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_HASH needn't be, but its
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  presence is strongly encouraged to ensure that the archive contents don't
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  change silently.  Note that when merging, because
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  $WS/tools/.gnupg/pubring.gpg is a binary file, you will have to choose
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  the parent or child version.  Pick one, then run:
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	for cset in $(hg log -r 'parents()' -T '{node} '); do
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		hg cat -r $cset $WS/tools/.gnupg/pubring.gpg | \
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			gpg2 --homedir=$WS/tools/.gnupg --import;
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	done
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  before you 'hg commit' your merge.
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* COMPONENT_BUGDB is the lower-case rendering of the BugDB cat/subcat.
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* REQUIRED_PACKAGES is a list of packages required to build or run the
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  component and its tests.
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* GIT_REPO can be used in place of COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_URL to pull the component
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  source from the GIT repository referenced in the value.
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* GIT_REV is the tag or changeset that you wish to pull from GIT.
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* HG_REPO can be used in place of COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_URL to pull the component
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  source from the Mercurial repository referenced in the value.
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* HG_REV is the tag or changeset that you wish to pull from Mercurial.
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* SVN_REPO can be used in place of COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_URL to pull the component
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  source from the Subversion repository referenced in the value.
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* SVN_REV is the tag or changeset that you wish to pull from Subversion.
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When using a source code management system as the canonical source for a
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component, the build automatically generates a source archive for the
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component by pulling the source from the SCM and creating a tarball from
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the pulled source.  This allows us to automatically store a copy of the
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canonical source that we build from in our source archive cache and not
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continually hammer on the component's SCM repo.  The source archive name
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is automatically generated from the COMPONENT_NAME, COMPONENT_VERSION,
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and {GIT|HG|SVN}_REV values.  Also, the source is archived and unpacked
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in a directory using these values.   You should also define a hash for
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this tarball in your Makefile similar to what you do with downloaded
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source archives.
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These two are both initialized in make-rules/shared-macros.mk rather than any
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component-level Makefile, but are frequently referenced from the latter.
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* COMPONENT_DIR is the top-level directory of the given component in question.
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* SOURCE_DIR is set to $(COMPONENT_DIR)/$(COMPONENT_SRC).
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Additional pre/post configure, build, or install actions can be specified in
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a component Makefile by setting them in one of the following macros.  None of
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these have default values.  These are mostly used for miscellaneous set-up or
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clean-up tweaks as their names suggest.
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* COMPONENT_PRE_CONFIGURE_ACTION is used by several components to clone a
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  source directory.
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* COMPONENT_POST_CONFIGURE_ACTION
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* COMPONENT_PRE_BUILD_ACTION
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* COMPONENT_POST_BUILD_ACTION
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* COMPONENT_PRE_INSTALL_ACTION
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* COMPONENT_POST_INSTALL_ACTION
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* COMPONENT_PRE_TEST_ACTION
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* COMPONENT_POST_TEST_ACTION
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If component specific make targets need to be used for build or install or
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test, they can be specified via the following.
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* COMPONENT_BUILD_TARGETS is not usually set because the default target of most
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  open source software is the equivalent of a 'build' target.  This needs to be
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  set when building the software requires a different target than the default.
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  You should not override make macros here, but in COMPONENT_BUILD_ARGS.
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* COMPONENT_INSTALL_TARGETS has a default value of "install".  Very few
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  components need to alter this.
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* COMPONENT_TEST_TARGETS has a default value of "check".  Several components
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  need to set this to "test".
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* COMPONENT_BUILD_ARGS is probably the mostly useful variable here for solving
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  subtle build issues.  When you need to override a MACRO set in the native
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  Makefile of a component, do so by adding something like:
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     COMPONENT_BUILD_ARGS += MKDIR="$(MKDIR)"
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  Quoting is often important because values with white-space can be split up,
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  yielding the wrong results.
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* COMPONENT_BUILD_ENV is for when you just need to override things in the
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  calling environment, like PATH.
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* COMPONENT_INSTALL_ARGS is mainly used for altering target directories;
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  there are also COMPONENT_INSTALL_ARGS.$(BITS) versions.
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* COMPONENT_INSTALL_ENV is mainly used for altering target directories.
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* COMPONENT_PUBLISH_ENV is so far only used to work around Python issues when
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  used by "pkgdepend generate", though the variable may be extended in the
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  future for general "gmake publish" usage.
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* COMPONENT_TEST_ARGS is little used.
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* COMPONENT_TEST_ENV is mainly used for altering PATH and friends.
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If your component needs to do some kind of cleanup after a "gmake test" run,
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such as kill processes after doing a "gmake test" run, then this can be done
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by setting COMPONENT_TEST_CLEANUP.
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If you have created master test results file(s) for your component in the
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COMPONENT_TEST_RESULTS_DIR directory, then in order to successfully compare
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your test results against that master results file, you might need to
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normalize some of the test output lines. This is done via a set of regular
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expressions that are applied to the test results. There are some global
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default ones in the COMPONENT_TEST_TRANSFORMS definition in shared-macros.mk,
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but your component Makefile might have to += some more for specific transforms
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that need to be applied to the test output for just this component.
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* SKIP_TEST_AT_TOP_LEVEL inclusion of this variable in a component Makefile
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  will cause that component's tests to be skipped when running "gmake test"
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  at the top level.  It's often used for excluding long-running tests 
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  that may slow down comprehensive component testing.  
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* COMPONENT_POST_UNPACK_ACTION is for making minor alterations to the unpacked
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  source directory before any patching has taken place.  It should almost never
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  be used.
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* COMPONENT_PREP_ACTION is used to make alterations to the unpacked and patched
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  source.  It should be used with care.
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For components that have a configure target, the following macros are used to
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control the options and arguments passed:
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* If BITS is set before shared-macros.mk is included, the default directories
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  used for various configure options as documented below will change.  For
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  example:
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  if BITS=64 explicitly:
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  	32-bit binaries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/bin/$(MACH32)
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	32-bit libraries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/lib
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  	64-bit binaries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/bin
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	64-bit libraries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/lib/$(MACH64)
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  if BITS=32 explicitly or BITS is unspecified:
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  	32-bit binaries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/bin
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	32-bit libraries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/lib
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  	64-bit binaries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/bin/$(MACH64)
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	64-bit libraries -> $(CONFIGURE_PREFIX)/lib/$(MACH64)
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* CC_FOR_BUILD is included in CONFIGURE_ENV by default to ensure that 32-bit
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  and 64-bit host detection works as expected for autoconf-based components by
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  specifying the exact compiler and relevant $(CC_BITS) for the current build.
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  It can be set to "" to omit it from CONFIGURE_ENV.
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* CONFIGURE_CPPFLAGS contains the default set of CPPFLAGS to be included in
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  CONFIGURE_ENV.  It can be set to "" to omit it from CONFIGURE_ENV.
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* CONFIGURE_DEFAULT_DIRS should be "yes" or "no".  A value of "yes" (the
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  default) will trigger the following being passed to CONFIGURE_OPTIONS as
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  parameters to corresponding options.
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  * CONFIGURE_BINDIR.$(BITS) is the value for the --bindir= option.
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  * CONFIGURE_LIBDIR.$(BITS) is the value for the --libdir= option.
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  * CONFIGURE_MANDIR.$(BITS) is the value for the --mandir= option.
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  * CONFIGURE_SBINDIR.$(BITS) is the value for the --sbindir= option.
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* CONFIGURE_ENV is mainly used for passing CFLAGS and other common Makefile
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  variables to configure.  When should this be used as opposed to
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  CONFIGURE_OPTIONS and COMPONENT_BUILD_{ARGS,ENV}?  In general, you want
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  to tell configure how to build the software using CONFIGURE_OPTIONS.  But
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  sometimes you need to pass values in via the calling environment.  On rare
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  occasions, you still need to do things like override MACRO settings in the
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  generated Makefiles with COMPONENT_BUILD_ARGS.
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* CONFIGURE_LOCALEDIR is a cousin of the other *DIR variables above, but
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  rarely used and hence not triggered by CONFIGURE_DEFAULT_DIRS.
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* CONFIGURE_OPTIONS is extremely useful, possibly our most used "add-on"
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  variable, for passing various options to configure.  These tend to vary per
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  component, but --enable-foo and --disable-foo for various values of foo are
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  quite common.
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* CONFIGURE_PREFIX is the prefix for the various *DIR variables above.  Its
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  default is "/usr"; set it if some other value (e.g., "/usr/gnu") is needed.
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* CONFIGURE_SCRIPT should be set if the default "$(SOURCE_DIR)/configure" is
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  unsuitable for whatever reason.
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To override or otherwise modify the default compilation flags used for
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components, the following macros are provided:
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* CFLAGS by default contains the preferred set of compilation flags for most
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  components, which usually includes optimization flags, language mode,
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  alignment flags, and multi-threading flags for the current COMPILER.
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  CFLAGS.$(COMPILER) and CFLAGS.$(COMPILERS).$(BITS) versions are also
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  available for specifying additional flags or overriding the default.
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* CXXFLAGS by default contains the preferred set of compilation flags for most
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  C++ components, which usually includes optimization flags, language mode,
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  alignment flags, and multi-threading flags for the current COMPILER.
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  CXXFLAGS.$(COMPILER) and CXXFLAGS.$(COMPILERS).$(BITS) versions are also
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  available for specifying additional flags or overriding the default.
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* gcc_OPT has a default value of "-O3".  Bugs in the optimizer have been found
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  which have required altering this to "-O2".
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* studio_OPT has a default value of "-xO4".  Occasional bugs in the optimizer
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  have been found which have required altering this to "-xO3".
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* There are also gcc_OPT.$(MACH).$(BITS) and studio_OPT.$(MACH).$(BITS)
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  versions of the above available if greater specificity is needed.
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For components that use pkg-config, the following macros are provided:
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* PKG_CONFIG_PATH contains the default system paths to use when looking for
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  pkg-config configuration files.  To specify additional paths to be searched,
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  use PKG_CONFIG_PATHS as follows:
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  PKG_CONFIG_PATHS += /path/to/pc/files
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Finally, for control of packaging-related operations and values used during
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publication, the following variables are available:
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* All variables named after the pattern COMPONENT_%(COMPONENT_NAME_%), such
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  as COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_URL, COMPONENT_ARCHIVE_URL_1, etc.  Refer to ips.mk
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  PKG_MACROS and PKG_VARS for a complete list.
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* DQ, SQ, Q: a set of convenience macros that expand to ", ', and "
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  respectively; $(Q) (or $Q) is simply the default quote with a short name
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  for convenience.  For use with values in package manifests where the
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  substituted value may contain whitespace.  For example:
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  set name=pkg.human-version value=$(DQ)$(HUMAN_VERSION)$(DQ)
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* PKG_MACROS: the list of makefile macros that should be exported as defines
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  for use in package manifests and pkgmogrify transform files.  Whitespace is
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  NOT supported; use of PKG_VARS is strongly preferred for this reason.  The
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  expected form each of entry is a key-value pair as follows:
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     PKG_MACROS += NAME=NO-WHITESPACE-VALUE
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* PKG_VARS: the list of variables that should be exported as defines for use in
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  package manifests and pkgmogrify transform files.  This list should generally
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  only be added to, not redefined, as follows:
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     PKG_VARS += VARIABLE_NAME
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  Variable values may contain whitespace, although the value must be quoted
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  appropriately in the package manifest if they do.  Variables must be assigned
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  before the inclusion of ips.mk.  Values containing whitespace should not be
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  quoted when declared in the Makefile; they should only be quoted using the
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  appropriate macros in the package manifest.  Values cannot currently contain
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  any characters that require shell escaping such as ", ', or *.
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* PYVER is defined when processing package manifest files whose name end in
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  -PYVER.p5m.  The package manifest will be processed for each version found in
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  PYTHON_VERSIONS.  MAYBE_PYVER_SPACE (e.g. '2.7 ') and MAYBE_SPACE_PYVER
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  (e.g. ' 2.7') are derived from PYVER if defined.  If PYVER is not defined
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  (such as when a generic unversioned Python package manifest is being
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  created), these are defined as ''.  perl and ruby follow the same pattern
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  and define PERLVER, PERL_VERSIONS, MAYBE_SPACE_PERLVER, MAYBE_PERLVER_SPACE
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  and RUBY_VERSION, RUBY_VERSIONS, MAYBE_RUBY_VERSION_SPACE,
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  MAYBE_SPACE_RUBY_VERSION respectively.
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* TPNO is the Third Party number (i.e., a numeric value): the License
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  Technology from the Product Lifecycle Suite tool.  This should be used
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  in the common case when there is just one TPNO for a component.  We
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  recommend that this be near the top of any Makefile, just below the
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  various COMPONENT_foo definitions.
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* TPNO_foo is for the rare case (~3% of components) when a component has
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  more than one TPNO.  Each one should have a separate short but descriptive
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  name substituted for "foo".  This likewise should be near the top of any
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  Makefile, just below the various COMPONENT_foo definitions, and it must
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  also be before the inclusion of ips.mk.  All variables named after the
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  pattern TPNO_% are automatically available for use in package manifests
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  and pkgmogrify transform files.
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---
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Now switching from explaining the function of specific variables to a more
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general discussion about how to use them to solve problems.  One method that
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has served time and again is adding a level of indirection.  For example,
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when Python 3 came along, we decided to build it 64-bit only, which meant
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its various modules also needed to be built 64-bit only.  But many of them
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had BUILD_32_and_64 in their native Makefile.  So how to tweak that macro
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to do one thing for Python 2.x but another for 3.x?  JBeck spent an entire
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day trying various combinations that seemed right, but none of them worked.
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Then Norm pointed out that changing PYTHON_VERSIONS from "3.4 2.7 2.6" to
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$(PYTHON3_VERSIONS) and $(PYTHON2_VERSIONS) which in turn were "3.4" and
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"2.7 2.6" would do the trick.  I.e., adding a level of indirection solved
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the problem, as it allowed $(PYTHON_VERSIONS) to be used to specify 64-bit
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macros but $(PYTHON2_VERSIONS) to specify 32-bit macros.  There are many
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other places where constructs like this are used.