components/coreutils/coreutils.license
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   680 into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you
   680 into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you
   681 may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with
   681 may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with
   682 the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
   682 the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
   683 Public License instead of this License.  But first, please read
   683 Public License instead of this License.  But first, please read
   684 <http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html>.
   684 <http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html>.
       
   685 
       
   686 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
       
   687 
       
   688                 GNU Free Documentation License
       
   689                  Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
       
   690 
       
   691 
       
   692  Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       
   693      <http://fsf.org/>
       
   694  Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
       
   695  of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
       
   696 
       
   697 0. PREAMBLE
       
   698 
       
   699 The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
       
   700 functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
       
   701 assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
       
   702 with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
       
   703 Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
       
   704 to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
       
   705 for modifications made by others.
       
   706 
       
   707 This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
       
   708 works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.  It
       
   709 complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
       
   710 license designed for free software.
       
   711 
       
   712 We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
       
   713 software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
       
   714 program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
       
   715 software does.  But this License is not limited to software manuals;
       
   716 it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
       
   717 whether it is published as a printed book.  We recommend this License
       
   718 principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
       
   719 
       
   720 
       
   721 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
       
   722 
       
   723 This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
       
   724 contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
       
   725 distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice grants a
       
   726 world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
       
   727 work under the conditions stated herein.  The "Document", below,
       
   728 refers to any such manual or work.  Any member of the public is a
       
   729 licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You accept the license if you
       
   730 copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
       
   731 under copyright law.
       
   732 
       
   733 A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
       
   734 Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
       
   735 modifications and/or translated into another language.
       
   736 
       
   737 A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
       
   738 the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
       
   739 publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
       
   740 subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall
       
   741 directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document is in
       
   742 part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain
       
   743 any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of historical
       
   744 connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
       
   745 commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
       
   746 them.
       
   747 
       
   748 The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
       
   749 are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
       
   750 that says that the Document is released under this License.  If a
       
   751 section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
       
   752 allowed to be designated as Invariant.  The Document may contain zero
       
   753 Invariant Sections.  If the Document does not identify any Invariant
       
   754 Sections then there are none.
       
   755 
       
   756 The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
       
   757 as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
       
   758 the Document is released under this License.  A Front-Cover Text may
       
   759 be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
       
   760 
       
   761 A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
       
   762 represented in a format whose specification is available to the
       
   763 general public, that is suitable for revising the document
       
   764 straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
       
   765 pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
       
   766 drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
       
   767 for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
       
   768 to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
       
   769 format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
       
   770 or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
       
   771 An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
       
   772 of text.  A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
       
   773 
       
   774 Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
       
   775 ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
       
   776 or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
       
   777 HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification.  Examples of
       
   778 transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats
       
   779 include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
       
   780 proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
       
   781 processing tools are not generally available, and the
       
   782 machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
       
   783 processors for output purposes only.
       
   784 
       
   785 The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
       
   786 plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
       
   787 this License requires to appear in the title page.  For works in
       
   788 formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
       
   789 the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
       
   790 preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
       
   791 
       
   792 The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies of
       
   793 the Document to the public.
       
   794 
       
   795 A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose
       
   796 title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
       
   797 text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ stands for a
       
   798 specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements",
       
   799 "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)  To "Preserve the Title"
       
   800 of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
       
   801 section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
       
   802 
       
   803 The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
       
   804 states that this License applies to the Document.  These Warranty
       
   805 Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
       
   806 License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
       
   807 implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
       
   808 no effect on the meaning of this License.
       
   809 
       
   810 2. VERBATIM COPYING
       
   811 
       
   812 You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
       
   813 commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
       
   814 copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
       
   815 to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no
       
   816 other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You may not use
       
   817 technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
       
   818 copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However, you may accept
       
   819 compensation in exchange for copies.  If you distribute a large enough
       
   820 number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
       
   821 
       
   822 You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
       
   823 you may publicly display copies.
       
   824 
       
   825 
       
   826 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
       
   827 
       
   828 If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
       
   829 printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
       
   830 Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
       
   831 copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
       
   832 Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
       
   833 the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
       
   834 you as the publisher of these copies.  The front cover must present
       
   835 the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
       
   836 visible.  You may add other material on the covers in addition.
       
   837 Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
       
   838 the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
       
   839 as verbatim copying in other respects.
       
   840 
       
   841 If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
       
   842 legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
       
   843 reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
       
   844 pages.
       
   845 
       
   846 If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
       
   847 more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
       
   848 copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
       
   849 a computer-network location from which the general network-using
       
   850 public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
       
   851 a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
       
   852 If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
       
   853 when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
       
   854 that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
       
   855 location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
       
   856 Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
       
   857 edition to the public.
       
   858 
       
   859 It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
       
   860 Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to
       
   861 give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the
       
   862 Document.
       
   863 
       
   864 
       
   865 4. MODIFICATIONS
       
   866 
       
   867 You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
       
   868 the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
       
   869 the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
       
   870 Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
       
   871 and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
       
   872 of it.  In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
       
   873 
       
   874 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
       
   875    from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
       
   876    (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
       
   877    of the Document).  You may use the same title as a previous version
       
   878    if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
       
   879 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
       
   880    responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
       
   881    Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
       
   882    Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
       
   883    unless they release you from this requirement.
       
   884 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
       
   885    Modified Version, as the publisher.
       
   886 D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
       
   887 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
       
   888    adjacent to the other copyright notices.
       
   889 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
       
   890    giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
       
   891    terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
       
   892 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
       
   893    and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
       
   894 H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
       
   895 I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add
       
   896    to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
       
   897    publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page.  If
       
   898    there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
       
   899    stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
       
   900    given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
       
   901    Version as stated in the previous sentence.
       
   902 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
       
   903    public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
       
   904    the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
       
   905    it was based on.  These may be placed in the "History" section.
       
   906    You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
       
   907    least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
       
   908    publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
       
   909 K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
       
   910    Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
       
   911    the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
       
   912    and/or dedications given therein.
       
   913 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
       
   914    unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
       
   915    or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
       
   916 M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
       
   917    may not be included in the Modified Version.
       
   918 N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements"
       
   919    or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
       
   920 O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
       
   921 
       
   922 If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
       
   923 appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
       
   924 copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
       
   925 of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their titles to the
       
   926 list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
       
   927 These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
       
   928 
       
   929 You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
       
   930 nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
       
   931 parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
       
   932 been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
       
   933 standard.
       
   934 
       
   935 You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
       
   936 passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
       
   937 of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage of
       
   938 Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
       
   939 through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document already
       
   940 includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
       
   941 by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
       
   942 you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
       
   943 permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
       
   944 
       
   945 The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
       
   946 give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
       
   947 imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
       
   948 
       
   949 
       
   950 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
       
   951 
       
   952 You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
       
   953 License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
       
   954 versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
       
   955 Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
       
   956 list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
       
   957 license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
       
   958 
       
   959 The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
       
   960 multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
       
   961 copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
       
   962 different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
       
   963 adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
       
   964 author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
       
   965 Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
       
   966 Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
       
   967 
       
   968 In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
       
   969 in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
       
   970 "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
       
   971 and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You must delete all sections
       
   972 Entitled "Endorsements".
       
   973 
       
   974 
       
   975 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
       
   976 
       
   977 You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
       
   978 documents released under this License, and replace the individual
       
   979 copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
       
   980 that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules
       
   981 of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all
       
   982 other respects.
       
   983 
       
   984 You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
       
   985 distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a
       
   986 copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
       
   987 License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
       
   988 document.
       
   989 
       
   990 
       
   991 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
       
   992 
       
   993 A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
       
   994 and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
       
   995 distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
       
   996 resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
       
   997 of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
       
   998 When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
       
   999 apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
       
  1000 derivative works of the Document.
       
  1001 
       
  1002 If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
       
  1003 copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
       
  1004 the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
       
  1005 covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
       
  1006 electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
       
  1007 Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
       
  1008 aggregate.
       
  1009 
       
  1010 
       
  1011 8. TRANSLATION
       
  1012 
       
  1013 Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
       
  1014 distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
       
  1015 Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
       
  1016 permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
       
  1017 translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
       
  1018 original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
       
  1019 translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
       
  1020 Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
       
  1021 the original English version of this License and the original versions
       
  1022 of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a disagreement between
       
  1023 the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
       
  1024 or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
       
  1025 
       
  1026 If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
       
  1027 "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
       
  1028 its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
       
  1029 title.
       
  1030 
       
  1031 
       
  1032 9. TERMINATION
       
  1033 
       
  1034 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
       
  1035 except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
       
  1036 otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and
       
  1037 will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
       
  1038 
       
  1039 However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license
       
  1040 from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally,
       
  1041 unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally
       
  1042 terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder
       
  1043 fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to
       
  1044 60 days after the cessation.
       
  1045 
       
  1046 Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
       
  1047 reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
       
  1048 violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
       
  1049 received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that
       
  1050 copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after
       
  1051 your receipt of the notice.
       
  1052 
       
  1053 Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
       
  1054 licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under
       
  1055 this License.  If your rights have been terminated and not permanently
       
  1056 reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does
       
  1057 not give you any rights to use it.
       
  1058 
       
  1059 
       
  1060 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
       
  1061 
       
  1062 The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the
       
  1063 GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new versions
       
  1064 will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in
       
  1065 detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
       
  1066 http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
       
  1067 
       
  1068 Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
       
  1069 If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
       
  1070 License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
       
  1071 following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
       
  1072 of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
       
  1073 Free Software Foundation.  If the Document does not specify a version
       
  1074 number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
       
  1075 as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If the Document
       
  1076 specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this
       
  1077 License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a
       
  1078 version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the
       
  1079 Document.
       
  1080 
       
  1081 11. RELICENSING
       
  1082 
       
  1083 "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
       
  1084 World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
       
  1085 provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
       
  1086 public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.  A
       
  1087 "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the site
       
  1088 means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.
       
  1089 
       
  1090 "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 
       
  1091 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit 
       
  1092 corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, 
       
  1093 California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license 
       
  1094 published by that same organization.
       
  1095 
       
  1096 "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in 
       
  1097 part, as part of another Document.
       
  1098 
       
  1099 An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this 
       
  1100 License, and if all works that were first published under this License 
       
  1101 somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or 
       
  1102 in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and 
       
  1103 (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.
       
  1104 
       
  1105 The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site
       
  1106 under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009,
       
  1107 provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.
       
  1108 
       
  1109 
       
  1110 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
       
  1111 
       
  1112 To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
       
  1113 the License in the document and put the following copyright and
       
  1114 license notices just after the title page:
       
  1115 
       
  1116     Copyright (c)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       
  1117     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       
  1118     under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       
  1119     or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       
  1120     with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
       
  1121     A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
       
  1122     Free Documentation License".
       
  1123 
       
  1124 If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
       
  1125 replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
       
  1126 
       
  1127     with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
       
  1128     Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
       
  1129 
       
  1130 If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
       
  1131 combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
       
  1132 situation.
       
  1133 
       
  1134 If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
       
  1135 recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
       
  1136 free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
       
  1137 to permit their use in free software.