7008684 time zone zoneinfo package should move to Userland consolidation
authorsonam gupta - Sun Microsystems - Bangalore India <Sonam.Gupta@Sun.COM>
Thu, 04 Aug 2011 11:29:10 +0530
changeset 454 1ef5e4f29411
parent 453 df0646878054
child 455 0806667217c9
7008684 time zone zoneinfo package should move to Userland consolidation
components/timezone/Makefile
components/timezone/README
components/timezone/africa
components/timezone/antarctica
components/timezone/asia
components/timezone/australasia
components/timezone/backward
components/timezone/continent.tab
components/timezone/country.tab
components/timezone/cr_Sun
components/timezone/do_pofile.sh
components/timezone/etcetera
components/timezone/europe
components/timezone/factory
components/timezone/northamerica
components/timezone/pacificnew
components/timezone/solar87
components/timezone/solar88
components/timezone/solar89
components/timezone/southamerica
components/timezone/system-data-timezone.p5m
components/timezone/systemv
components/timezone/zone.tab.txt
components/timezone/zone_sun.tab
components/timezone/zoneinfo.4
make-rules/shared-macros.mk
transforms/defaults
transforms/locale
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/components/timezone/Makefile	Thu Aug 04 11:29:10 2011 +0530
@@ -0,0 +1,59 @@
+#
+#
+# CDDL HEADER START
+#
+# The contents of this file are subject to the terms of the
+# Common Development and Distribution License (the "License").
+# You may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
+#
+# You can obtain a copy of the license at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE
+# or http://www.opensolaris.org/os/licensing.
+# See the License for the specific language governing permissions
+# and limitations under the License.
+#
+# When distributing Covered Code, include this CDDL HEADER in each
+# file and include the License file at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE.
+# If applicable, add the following below this CDDL HEADER, with the
+# fields enclosed by brackets "[]" replaced with your own identifying
+# information: Portions Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]
+#
+# CDDL HEADER END
+#
+# Copyright (c) 2005, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+#
+include ../../make-rules/shared-macros.mk
+
+COMPONENT_NAME= 	timezone
+
+# "etcetera" must be listed before "backward" because it sets up links that
+# "backward" needs.
+TZFILES= africa antarctica asia australasia etcetera europe \
+	 factory northamerica pacificnew solar87 solar88 solar89 \
+	 southamerica backward
+
+include ../../make-rules/ips.mk
+
+POFILE=zoneinfo.po
+
+download:
+	@echo "Nothing to download."
+
+prep:
+	@echo "Nothing to prep."
+
+build:
+	@/bin/sh ./do_pofile.sh > $(POFILE)
+
+install: build
+	/usr/sbin/zic -d $(PROTOUSRSHARELIBDIR)/zoneinfo $(TZFILES)
+
+# empty test target
+test:	$(NO_TESTS)
+
+clean:
+	$(RM) -r $(BUILD_DIR) $(POFILE)
+
+clobber: clean
+
+include ../../make-rules/depend.mk
+
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/components/timezone/README	Thu Aug 04 11:29:10 2011 +0530
@@ -0,0 +1,60 @@
+Copyright (c) 1999, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+
+The /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/src directory contains zoneinfo timezone source
+files.  These source files have been compiled using zic(1M) to create
+the zoneinfo data files in /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo.  The zic command can be
+used with the zoneinfo source files to create additional data files.
+
+The zoneinfo files track the Olson public source provided at
+ftp://elsie.nci.nih.gov/pub/, therefore zoneinfo files may be added and
+removed as the Solaris source is updated.  The current Solaris release of
+the zoneinfo files is based on tzdata2011h.tar.gz.
+
+The /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT[+-]* timezones listed below have been
+removed from the release.  Replace usage of the
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT[+-]* files with the equivalent quoted timezone
+(see environ(5)).  Note the signs of the offsets of the equivalent quoted
+timezone are reversed from the signs of the /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT[+-]*
+files.
+
+For example, replace TZ=:GMT+1, with TZ="<GMT-1>-1".  (The colon (:) is
+significant.  Without the colon, for example TZ=GMT+1, an unquoted timezone
+is used;  unquoted timezones are not affected by the removal of the zoneinfo
+timezone files listed below.)
+
+The following files have been removed from the release:
+
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT-12
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT-11
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT-10
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT-9
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT-8
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT-7
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT-6
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT-5
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT-4
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT-3
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT-2
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT-1
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT+1
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT+2
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT+3
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT+4
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT+5
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT+6
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT+7
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT+8
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT+9
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT+10
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT+11
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT+12
+/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/GMT+13
+
+As zoneinfo timezones are updated, the savings/daylight transition rules
+and timezone name abbreviations may change.  This can affect how 
+the times are calculated in the local timezone.  Therefore the interpretation
+of a time_t value can vary amongst Solaris releases that use different
+versions of the zoneinfo timezones.
+
+For more information see zic(1M), zdump(1M), environ(5), TIMEZONE(4),
+ctime(3C), and mktime(3C) man pages.
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/components/timezone/africa	Thu Aug 04 11:29:10 2011 +0530
@@ -0,0 +1,1106 @@
+# <pre>
+# @(#)africa	8.31
+# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
+# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
+
+# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
+# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
+# [email protected] for general use in the future).
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+#
+# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
+# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
+# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
+#
+# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
+# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
+# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
+# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
+# of the IATA's data after 1990.
+#
+# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
+# entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
+#
+# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
+# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
+# I found in the UCLA library.
+#
+# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
+# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
+#
+# Previous editions of this database used WAT, CAT, SAT, and EAT
+# for +0:00 through +3:00, respectively,
+# but Mark R V Murray reports that
+# `SAST' is the official abbreviation for +2:00 in the country of South Africa,
+# `CAT' is commonly used for +2:00 in countries north of South Africa, and
+# `WAT' is probably the best name for +1:00, as the common phrase for
+# the area that includes Nigeria is ``West Africa''.
+# He has heard of ``Western Sahara Time'' for +0:00 but can find no reference.
+#
+# To make things confusing, `WAT' seems to have been used for -1:00 long ago;
+# I'd guess that this was because people needed _some_ name for -1:00,
+# and at the time, far west Africa was the only major land area in -1:00.
+# This usage is now obsolete, as the last use of -1:00 on the African
+# mainland seems to have been 1976 in Western Sahara.
+#
+# To summarize, the following abbreviations seem to have some currency:
+#	-1:00	WAT	West Africa Time (no longer used)
+#	 0:00	GMT	Greenwich Mean Time
+#	 2:00	CAT	Central Africa Time
+#	 2:00	SAST	South Africa Standard Time
+# and Murray suggests the following abbreviation:
+#	 1:00	WAT	West Africa Time
+# I realize that this leads to `WAT' being used for both -1:00 and 1:00
+# for times before 1976, but this is the best I can think of
+# until we get more information.
+#
+# I invented the following abbreviations; corrections are welcome!
+#	 2:00	WAST	West Africa Summer Time
+#	 2:30	BEAT	British East Africa Time (no longer used)
+#	 2:44:45 BEAUT	British East Africa Unified Time (no longer used)
+#	 3:00	CAST	Central Africa Summer Time (no longer used)
+#	 3:00	SAST	South Africa Summer Time (no longer used)
+#	 3:00	EAT	East Africa Time
+#	 4:00	EAST	East Africa Summer Time (no longer used)
+
+# Algeria
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Algeria	1916	only	-	Jun	14	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Algeria	1916	1919	-	Oct	Sun>=1	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Algeria	1917	only	-	Mar	24	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Algeria	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Algeria	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Algeria	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Algeria	1920	only	-	Oct	23	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Algeria	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Algeria	1921	only	-	Jun	21	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Algeria	1939	only	-	Sep	11	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Algeria	1939	only	-	Nov	19	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Algeria	1944	1945	-	Apr	Mon>=1	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Algeria	1944	only	-	Oct	 8	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Algeria	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Algeria	1971	only	-	Apr	25	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Algeria	1971	only	-	Sep	26	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Algeria	1977	only	-	May	 6	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Algeria	1977	only	-	Oct	21	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Algeria	1978	only	-	Mar	24	 1:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Algeria	1978	only	-	Sep	22	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Algeria	1980	only	-	Apr	25	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Algeria	1980	only	-	Oct	31	 2:00	0	-
+# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
+# more precise 0:09:21.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Algiers	0:12:12 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15 0:01
+			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
+			0:00	Algeria	WE%sT	1940 Feb 25 2:00
+			1:00	Algeria	CE%sT	1946 Oct  7
+			0:00	-	WET	1956 Jan 29
+			1:00	-	CET	1963 Apr 14
+			0:00	Algeria	WE%sT	1977 Oct 21
+			1:00	Algeria	CE%sT	1979 Oct 26
+			0:00	Algeria	WE%sT	1981 May
+			1:00	-	CET
+
+# Angola
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Luanda	0:52:56	-	LMT	1892
+			0:52:04	-	AOT	1911 May 26 # Angola Time
+			1:00	-	WAT
+
+# Benin
+# Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1946, not 1934;
+# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Africa/Porto-Novo	0:10:28	-	LMT	1912
+			0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
+			1:00	-	WAT
+
+# Botswana
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Gaborone	1:43:40 -	LMT	1885
+			2:00	-	CAT	1943 Sep 19 2:00
+			2:00	1:00	CAST	1944 Mar 19 2:00
+			2:00	-	CAT
+
+# Burkina Faso
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Africa/Ouagadougou	-0:06:04 -	LMT	1912
+			 0:00	-	GMT
+
+# Burundi
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Africa/Bujumbura	1:57:28	-	LMT	1890
+			2:00	-	CAT
+
+# Cameroon
+# Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1920; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Douala	0:38:48	-	LMT	1912
+			1:00	-	WAT
+
+# Cape Verde
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 -	LMT	1907			# Praia
+			-2:00	-	CVT	1942 Sep
+			-2:00	1:00	CVST	1945 Oct 15
+			-2:00	-	CVT	1975 Nov 25 2:00
+			-1:00	-	CVT
+
+# Central African Republic
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Bangui	1:14:20	-	LMT	1912
+			1:00	-	WAT
+
+# Chad
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Ndjamena	1:00:12 -	LMT	1912
+			1:00	-	WAT	1979 Oct 14
+			1:00	1:00	WAST	1980 Mar  8
+			1:00	-	WAT
+
+# Comoros
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Indian/Comoro	2:53:04 -	LMT	1911 Jul   # Moroni, Gran Comoro
+			3:00	-	EAT
+
+# Democratic Republic of Congo
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Africa/Kinshasa	1:01:12 -	LMT	1897 Nov 9
+			1:00	-	WAT
+Zone Africa/Lubumbashi	1:49:52 -	LMT	1897 Nov 9
+			2:00	-	CAT
+
+# Republic of the Congo
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Africa/Brazzaville	1:01:08 -	LMT	1912
+			1:00	-	WAT
+
+# Cote D'Ivoire
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Abidjan	-0:16:08 -	LMT	1912
+			 0:00	-	GMT
+
+# Djibouti
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Djibouti	2:52:36 -	LMT	1911 Jul
+			3:00	-	EAT
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# Egypt
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Egypt	1940	only	-	Jul	15	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	1940	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	1941	only	-	Apr	15	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	1941	only	-	Sep	16	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	1942	1944	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	1942	only	-	Oct	27	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	1943	1945	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	1945	only	-	Apr	16	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	1957	only	-	May	10	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	1957	1958	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	1958	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	1959	1981	-	May	 1	1:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	1959	1965	-	Sep	30	3:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	1966	1994	-	Oct	 1	3:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	1982	only	-	Jul	25	1:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	1983	only	-	Jul	12	1:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	1984	1988	-	May	 1	1:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	1989	only	-	May	 6	1:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	1990	1994	-	May	 1	1:00	1:00	S
+# IATA (after 1990) says transitions are at 0:00.
+# Go with IATA starting in 1995, except correct 1995 entry from 09-30 to 09-29.
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-04-20):
+# "...Egypt's interim cabinet decided on Wednesday to cancel daylight
+# saving time after a poll posted on its website showed the majority of
+# Egyptians would approve the cancellation."
+#
+# Egypt to cancel daylight saving time
+# <a href="http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168">
+# http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/407168
+# </a>
+# or
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt04.html
+# </a>
+Rule	Egypt	1995	2010	-	Apr	lastFri	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	1995	2005	-	Sep	lastThu	23:00s	0	-
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-19):
+# The Egyptian Gazette, issue 41,090 (2006-09-18), page 1, reports:
+# Egypt will turn back clocks by one hour at the midnight of Thursday
+# after observing the daylight saving time since May.
+# http://news.gom.com.eg/gazette/pdf/2006/09/18/01.pdf
+Rule	Egypt	2006	only	-	Sep	21	23:00s	0	-
+# From Dirk Losch (2007-08-14):
+# I received a mail from an airline which says that the daylight
+# saving time in Egypt will end in the night of 2007-09-06 to 2007-09-07.
+# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:]
+# http://www.nentjes.info/Bill/bill5.htm 
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=53
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-09-04): The official information...:
+# http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/EgyptOnline/Miscellaneous/000002/0207000000000000001580.htm
+Rule	Egypt	2007	only	-	Sep	Thu>=1	23:00s	0	-
+# From Abdelrahman Hassan (2007-09-06):
+# Due to the Hijri (lunar Islamic calendar) year being 11 days shorter
+# than the year of the Gregorian calendar, Ramadan shifts earlier each
+# year. This year it will be observed September 13 (September is quite
+# hot in Egypt), and the idea is to make fasting easier for workers by
+# shifting business hours one hour out of daytime heat. Consequently,
+# unless discontinued, next DST may end Thursday 28 August 2008.
+# From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17):
+# For lack of better info, assume the new rule is last Thursday in August.
+
+# From Petr Machata (2009-04-06):
+# The following appeared in Red Hat bugzilla[1] (edited):
+#
+# > $ zdump -v /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo | grep 2009
+# > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Apr 23 21:59:59 2009 UTC = Thu =
+# Apr 23
+# > 23:59:59 2009 EET isdst=0 gmtoff=7200
+# > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Apr 23 22:00:00 2009 UTC = Fri =
+# Apr 24
+# > 01:00:00 2009 EEST isdst=1 gmtoff=10800
+# > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Aug 27 20:59:59 2009 UTC = Thu =
+# Aug 27
+# > 23:59:59 2009 EEST isdst=1 gmtoff=10800
+# > /usr/share/zoneinfo/Africa/Cairo  Thu Aug 27 21:00:00 2009 UTC = Thu =
+# Aug 27
+# > 23:00:00 2009 EET isdst=0 gmtoff=7200
+#
+# > end date should be Thu Sep 24 2009 (Last Thursday in September at 23:59=
+# :59)
+# > http://support.microsoft.com/kb/958729/
+#
+# timeanddate[2] and another site I've found[3] also support that.
+#
+# [1] <a href="https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263">
+# https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=492263
+# </a>
+# [2] <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/clockchange.html?n=53
+# </a>
+# [3] <a href="http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/">
+# http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/africa/egypt/
+# </a>
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-20):
+# In 2009 (and for the next several years), Ramadan ends before the fourth
+# Thursday in September; Egypt is expected to revert to the last Thursday
+# in September.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-11):
+# We have been able to confirm the August change with the Egyptian Cabinet 
+# Information and Decision Support Center:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/egypt-dst-ends-2009.html
+# </a>
+# 
+# The Middle East News Agency
+# <a href="http://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx">
+# http://www.mena.org.eg/index.aspx
+# </a>
+# also reports "Egypt starts winter time on August 21"
+# today in article numbered "71, 11/08/2009 12:25 GMT." 
+# Only the title above is available without a subscription to their service,
+# and can be found by searching for "winter" in their search engine
+# (at least today).
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-07-20):
+# According to News from Egypt -  Al-Masry Al-Youm Egypt's cabinet has
+# decided that Daylight Saving Time will not be used in Egypt during
+# Ramadan.
+#
+# Arabic translation:
+# "Clocks to go back during Ramadan--and then forward again"
+# <a href="http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again">
+# http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/news/clocks-go-back-during-ramadan-and-then-forward-again
+# </a>
+# or
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_egypt02.html
+# </a>
+
+Rule	Egypt	2008	only	-	Aug	lastThu	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2009	only	-	Aug	20	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Aug	11	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Sep	10	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Egypt	2010	only	-	Sep	lastThu	23:00s	0	-
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Cairo	2:05:00 -	LMT	1900 Oct
+			2:00	Egypt	EE%sT
+
+# Equatorial Guinea
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Malabo	0:35:08 -	LMT	1912
+			0:00	-	GMT	1963 Dec 15
+			1:00	-	WAT
+
+# Eritrea
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Asmara	2:35:32 -	LMT	1870
+			2:35:32	-	AMT	1890	      # Asmara Mean Time
+			2:35:20	-	ADMT	1936 May 5    # Adis Dera MT
+			3:00	-	EAT
+
+# Ethiopia
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# Shanks & Pottenger write that Ethiopia had six narrowly-spaced time zones
+# between 1870 and 1890, and that they merged to 38E50 (2:35:20) in 1890.
+# We'll guess that 38E50 is for Adis Dera.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Africa/Addis_Ababa	2:34:48 -	LMT	1870
+			2:35:20	-	ADMT	1936 May 5    # Adis Dera MT
+			3:00	-	EAT
+
+# Gabon
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Africa/Libreville	0:37:48 -	LMT	1912
+			1:00	-	WAT
+
+# Gambia
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Banjul	-1:06:36 -	LMT	1912
+			-1:06:36 -	BMT	1935	# Banjul Mean Time
+			-1:00	-	WAT	1964
+			 0:00	-	GMT
+
+# Ghana
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+# Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to ``the present'';
+# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Ghana	1936	1942	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0:20	GHST
+Rule	Ghana	1936	1942	-	Dec	31	0:00	0	GMT
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Accra	-0:00:52 -	LMT	1918
+			 0:00	Ghana	%s
+
+# Guinea
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Conakry	-0:54:52 -	LMT	1912
+			 0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
+			-1:00	-	WAT	1960
+			 0:00	-	GMT
+
+# Guinea-Bissau
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Bissau	-1:02:20 -	LMT	1911 May 26
+			-1:00	-	WAT	1975
+			 0:00	-	GMT
+
+# Kenya
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Nairobi	2:27:16	-	LMT	1928 Jul
+			3:00	-	EAT	1930
+			2:30	-	BEAT	1940
+			2:44:45	-	BEAUT	1960
+			3:00	-	EAT
+
+# Lesotho
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Maseru	1:50:00 -	LMT	1903 Mar
+			2:00	-	SAST	1943 Sep 19 2:00
+			2:00	1:00	SAST	1944 Mar 19 2:00
+			2:00	-	SAST
+
+# Liberia
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# In 1972 Liberia was the last country to switch
+# from a UTC offset that was not a multiple of 15 or 20 minutes.
+# Howse reports that it was in honor of their president's birthday.
+# Shank & Pottenger report the date as May 1, whereas Howse reports Jan;
+# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+# For Liberia before 1972, Shanks & Pottenger report -0:44, whereas Howse and
+# Whitman each report -0:44:30; go with the more precise figure.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Monrovia	-0:43:08 -	LMT	1882
+			-0:43:08 -	MMT	1919 Mar # Monrovia Mean Time
+			-0:44:30 -	LRT	1972 May # Liberia Time
+			 0:00	-	GMT
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# Libya
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Libya	1951	only	-	Oct	14	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Libya	1952	only	-	Jan	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Libya	1953	only	-	Oct	 9	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Libya	1954	only	-	Jan	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Libya	1955	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Libya	1956	only	-	Jan	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Libya	1982	1984	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Libya	1982	1985	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Libya	1985	only	-	Apr	 6	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Libya	1986	only	-	Apr	 4	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Libya	1986	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Libya	1987	1989	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Libya	1987	1989	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Tripoli	0:52:44 -	LMT	1920
+			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	1959
+			2:00	-	EET	1982
+			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	1990 May  4
+# The following entries are from Shanks & Pottenger;
+# the IATA SSIM data contain some obvious errors.
+			2:00	-	EET	1996 Sep 30
+			1:00	-	CET	1997 Apr  4
+			1:00	1:00	CEST	1997 Oct  4
+			2:00	-	EET
+
+# Madagascar
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Indian/Antananarivo 3:10:04 -	LMT	1911 Jul
+			3:00	-	EAT	1954 Feb 27 23:00s
+			3:00	1:00	EAST	1954 May 29 23:00s
+			3:00	-	EAT
+
+# Malawi
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Blantyre	2:20:00 -	LMT	1903 Mar
+			2:00	-	CAT
+
+# Mali
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Bamako	-0:32:00 -	LMT	1912
+			 0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
+			-1:00	-	WAT	1960 Jun 20
+			 0:00	-	GMT
+
+# Mauritania
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Africa/Nouakchott	-1:03:48 -	LMT	1912
+			 0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
+			-1:00	-	WAT	1960 Nov 28
+			 0:00	-	GMT
+
+# Mauritius
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-06-25):
+# Mauritius plans to observe DST from 2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31 on a trial
+# basis....
+# It seems that Mauritius observed daylight saving time from 1982-10-10 to 
+# 1983-03-20 as well, but that was not successful....
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-daylight-saving-time.html
+
+# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-06-25):
+# http://economicdevelopment.gov.mu/portal/site/Mainhomepage/menuitem.a42b24128104d9845dabddd154508a0c/?content_id=0a7cee8b5d69a110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2008-06-30):
+# The www.timeanddate.com article cited by Steffen Thorsen notes that "A
+# final decision has yet to be made on the times that daylight saving
+# would begin and end on these dates." As a place holder, use midnight.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2008-06-30):
+# Follow Thorsen on DST in 1982/1983, instead of Shanks & Pottenger.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-07-10):
+# According to
+# <a href="http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216">
+# http://www.lexpress.mu/display_article.php?news_id=111216
+# </a>
+# (in French), Mauritius will start and end their DST a few days earlier
+# than previously announced (2008-11-01 to 2009-03-31).  The new start
+# date is 2008-10-26 at 02:00 and the new end date is 2009-03-27 (no time
+# given, but it is probably at either 2 or 3 wall clock time).
+# 
+# A little strange though, since the article says that they moved the date 
+# to align itself with Europe and USA which also change time on that date, 
+# but that means they have not paid attention to what happened in 
+# USA/Canada last year (DST ends first Sunday in November). I also wonder 
+# why that they end on a Friday, instead of aligning with Europe which 
+# changes two days later.
+
+# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-07-11):
+# Seems that English language article "The revival of daylight saving
+# time:  Energy conservation?"-# No. 16578 (07/11/2008) was originally
+# published on Monday, June 30, 2008...
+#
+# I guess that article in French "Le gouvernement avance l'introduction
+# de l'heure d'ete" stating that DST in Mauritius starting on October 26
+# and ending on March 27, 2009 is the most recent one.
+# ...
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_mauritius02.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Riad M. Hossen Ally (2008-08-03):
+# The Government of Mauritius weblink
+# <a href="http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD">
+# http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/pmosite/menuitem.4ca0efdee47462e7440a600248a521ca/?content_id=4728ca68b2a5b110VgnVCM1000000a04a8c0RCRD
+# </a>
+# Cabinet Decision of July 18th, 2008 states as follows:
+#
+# 4. ...Cabinet has agreed to the introduction into the National Assembly
+# of the Time Bill which provides for the introduction of summer time in
+# Mauritius. The summer time period which will be of one hour ahead of
+# the standard time, will be aligned with that in Europe and the United
+# States of America. It will start at two o'clock in the morning on the
+# last Sunday of October and will end at two o'clock in the morning on
+# the last Sunday of March the following year. The summer time for the
+# year 2008 - 2009 will, therefore, be effective as from 26 October 2008
+# and end on 29 March 2009.
+
+# From Ed Maste (2008-10-07):
+# THE TIME BILL (No. XXVII of 2008) Explanatory Memorandum states the
+# beginning / ending of summer time is 2 o'clock standard time in the
+# morning of the last Sunday of October / last Sunday of March.
+# <a href="http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf">
+# http://www.gov.mu/portal/goc/assemblysite/file/bill2708.pdf
+# </a>
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-05):
+# According to several sources, Mauritius will not continue to observe
+# DST the coming summer...
+#
+# Some sources, in French:
+# <a href="http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB">
+# http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB
+# </a>
+# <a href="http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-">
+# http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-
+# </a>
+#
+# Our wrap-up:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2009-07-11):
+# The "mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat" wrapup includes this: 
+# "The trial ended on March 29, 2009, when the clocks moved back by one hour
+# at 2am (or 02:00) local time..."
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule Mauritius	1982	only	-	Oct	10	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule Mauritius	1983	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	0	-
+Rule Mauritius	2008	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule Mauritius	2009	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Indian/Mauritius	3:50:00 -	LMT	1907		# Port Louis
+			4:00 Mauritius	MU%sT	# Mauritius Time
+# Agalega Is, Rodriguez
+# no information; probably like Indian/Mauritius
+
+# Mayotte
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Indian/Mayotte	3:00:56 -	LMT	1911 Jul	# Mamoutzou
+			3:00	-	EAT
+
+# Morocco
+# See the `europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta).
+
+# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
+# Here is an article that Morocco plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time between
+# 1 June, 2008 and 27 September, 2008.
+#
+# "... Morocco is to save energy by adjusting its clock during summer so it will
+# be one hour ahead of GMT between 1 June and 27 September, according to
+# Communication Minister and Gov ernment Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...."
+#
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html
+# </a>
+# OR
+# <a href="http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html">
+# http://en.afrik.com/news11892.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
+# The Morocco time change can be confirmed on Morocco web site Maghreb Arabe Presse:
+# <a href="http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view">
+# http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/box3/morocco_shifts_to_da/view
+# </a>
+#
+# Morocco shifts to daylight time on June 1st through September 27, Govt.
+# spokesman.
+
+# From Patrice Scattolin (2008-05-09):
+# According to this article:
+# <a href="http://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html">
+# http://www.avmaroc.com/actualite/heure-dete-comment-a127896.html
+# </a>
+# (and republished here:
+# <a href="http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html">
+# http://www.actu.ma/heure-dete-comment_i127896_0.html
+# </a>
+# )
+# the changes occurs at midnight:
+#
+# saturday night may 31st at midnight (which in french is to be
+# intrepreted as the night between saturday and sunday)
+# sunday night the 28th  at midnight
+#
+# Seeing that the 28th is monday, I am guessing that she intends to say
+# the midnight of the 28th which is the midnight between sunday and
+# monday, which jives with other sources that say that it's inclusive
+# june1st to sept 27th.
+#
+# The decision was taken by decree *2-08-224 *but I can't find the decree
+# published on the web.
+#
+# It's also confirmed here:
+# <a href="http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm">
+# http://www.maroc.ma/NR/exeres/FACF141F-D910-44B0-B7FA-6E03733425D1.htm
+# </a>
+# on a government portal as being  between june 1st and sept 27th (not yet
+# posted in english).
+#
+# The following google query will generate many relevant hits:
+# <a href="http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search">
+# http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Conseil+de+gouvernement+maroc+heure+avance&btnG=Search
+# </a>
+
+# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
+# Is Western Sahara (part which administrated by Morocco) going to follow
+# Morocco DST changes?  Any information?  What about other part of
+# Western Sahara - under administration of POLISARIO Front (also named
+# SADR Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic)?
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-09):
+# XXX--guess that it is only Morocco for now; guess only 2008 for now.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-08-27):
+# Morocco will change the clocks back on the midnight between August 31 
+# and September 1. They originally planned to observe DST to near the end 
+# of September:
+#
+# One article about it (in French):
+# <a href="http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default">
+# http://www.menara.ma/fr/Actualites/Maroc/Societe/ci.retour_a_l_heure_gmt_a_partir_du_dimanche_31_aout_a_minuit_officiel_.default
+# </a>
+#
+# We have some further details posted here:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-ends-dst-early-2008.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-17):
+# Morocco will observe DST from 2009-06-01 00:00 to 2009-08-21 00:00 according
+# to many sources, such as
+# <a href="http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html">
+# http://news.marweb.com/morocco/entertainment/morocco-daylight-saving.html
+# </a>
+# <a href="http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312">
+# http://www.medi1sat.ma/fr/depeche.aspx?idp=2312
+# </a>
+# (French)
+#
+# Our summary:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2009.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
+# Here is a link to official document from Royaume du Maroc Premier Ministre,
+# Ministere de la Modernisation des Secteurs Publics
+#
+# Under Article 1 of Royal Decree No. 455-67 of Act 23 safar 1387 (2 june 1967)
+# concerning the amendment of the legal time, the Ministry of Modernization of
+# Public Sectors announced that the official time in the Kingdom will be
+# advanced 60 minutes from Sunday 31 May 2009 at midnight.
+#
+# <a href="http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf">
+# http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/francais/Actualites_fr/PDF_Actualites_Fr/HeureEte_FR.pdf
+# </a>
+#
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco03.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-04-13):
+# Several news media in Morocco report that the Ministry of Modernization
+# of Public Sectors has announced that Morocco will have DST from
+# 2010-05-02 to 2010-08-08.
+#
+# Example:
+# <a href="http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html">
+# http://www.lavieeco.com/actualites/4099-le-maroc-passera-a-l-heure-d-ete-gmt1-le-2-mai.html
+# </a>
+# (French)
+# Our page:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-starts-dst-2010.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Dan Abitol (2011-03-30):
+# ...Rules for Africa/Casablanca are the following (24h format)
+# The 3rd april 2011 at 00:00:00, [it] will be 3rd april 1:00:00
+# The 31th july 2011 at 00:59:59,  [it] will be 31th July 00:00:00
+# ...Official links of change in morocco
+# The change was broadcast on the FM Radio
+# I ve called ANRT (telecom regulations in Morocco) at
+# +212.537.71.84.00
+# <a href="http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/">
+# http://www.anrt.net.ma/fr/
+# </a>
+# They said that
+# <a href="http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view">
+# http://www.map.ma/fr/sections/accueil/l_heure_legale_au_ma/view
+# </a>
+# is the official publication to look at.
+# They said that the decision was already taken.
+#
+# More articles in the press
+# <a href="http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-lev">
+# http://www.yabiladi.com/articles/details/5058/secret-l-heure-d-ete-maroc-lev
+# </a>
+# e.html
+# <a href="http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923">
+# http://www.lematin.ma/Actualite/Express/Article.asp?id=148923
+# </a>
+# <a href="http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim">
+# http://www.lavieeco.com/actualite/Le-Maroc-passe-sur-GMT%2B1-a-partir-de-dim
+# anche-prochain-5538.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Petr Machata (2011-03-30):
+# They have it written in English here:
+# <a href="http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view">
+# http://www.map.ma/eng/sections/home/morocco_to_spring_fo/view
+# </a>
+#
+# It says there that "Morocco will resume its standard time on July 31,
+# 2011 at midnight." Now they don't say whether they mean midnight of
+# wall clock time (i.e. 11pm UTC), but that's what I would assume. It has
+# also been like that in the past.
+
+# RULE	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+
+Rule	Morocco	1939	only	-	Sep	12	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	1939	only	-	Nov	19	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	1945	only	-	Nov	18	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	1950	only	-	Jun	11	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	1950	only	-	Oct	29	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	1967	only	-	Jun	 3	12:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	1967	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	1974	only	-	Jun	24	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	1974	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	1976	1977	-	May	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	1976	only	-	Aug	 1	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	1977	only	-	Sep	28	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	1978	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	1978	only	-	Aug	 4	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2008	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2008	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2009	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2009	only	-	Aug	 21	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2010	only	-	May	 2	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2010	only	-	Aug	 8	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Morocco	2011	only	-	Apr	 3	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Morocco	2011	only	-	Jul	 31	 0	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Africa/Casablanca	-0:30:20 -	LMT	1913 Oct 26
+			 0:00	Morocco	WE%sT	1984 Mar 16
+			 1:00	-	CET	1986
+			 0:00	Morocco	WE%sT
+# Western Sahara
+Zone Africa/El_Aaiun	-0:52:48 -	LMT	1934 Jan
+			-1:00	-	WAT	1976 Apr 14
+			 0:00	-	WET
+
+# Mozambique
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Maputo	2:10:20 -	LMT	1903 Mar
+			2:00	-	CAT
+
+# Namibia
+# The 1994-04-03 transition is from Shanks & Pottenger.
+# Shanks & Pottenger report no DST after 1998-04; go with IATA.
+
+# From Petronella Sibeene (2007-03-30) in
+# <http://allafrica.com/stories/200703300178.html>:
+# While the entire country changes its time, Katima Mulilo and other
+# settlements in Caprivi unofficially will not because the sun there
+# rises and sets earlier compared to other regions.  Chief of
+# Forecasting Riaan van Zyl explained that the far eastern parts of
+# the country are close to 40 minutes earlier in sunrise than the rest
+# of the country.
+# 
+# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-31):
+# Apparently the Caprivi Strip informally observes Botswana time, but
+# we have no details.  In the meantime people there can use Africa/Gaborone.
+
+# RULE	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Namibia	1994	max	-	Sep	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Namibia	1995	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Windhoek	1:08:24 -	LMT	1892 Feb 8
+			1:30	-	SWAT	1903 Mar	# SW Africa Time
+			2:00	-	SAST	1942 Sep 20 2:00
+			2:00	1:00	SAST	1943 Mar 21 2:00
+			2:00	-	SAST	1990 Mar 21 # independence
+			2:00	-	CAT	1994 Apr  3
+			1:00	Namibia	WA%sT
+
+# Niger
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Niamey	 0:08:28 -	LMT	1912
+			-1:00	-	WAT	1934 Feb 26
+			 0:00	-	GMT	1960
+			 1:00	-	WAT
+
+# Nigeria
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Lagos	0:13:36 -	LMT	1919 Sep
+			1:00	-	WAT
+
+# Reunion
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Indian/Reunion	3:41:52 -	LMT	1911 Jun	# Saint-Denis
+			4:00	-	RET	# Reunion Time
+#
+# Scattered Islands (Iles Eparses) administered from Reunion are as follows.
+# The following information about them is taken from
+# Iles Eparses (www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm, 1997-07-22, in French;
+# no longer available as of 1999-08-17).
+# We have no info about their time zone histories.
+#
+# Bassas da India - uninhabited
+# Europa Island - inhabited from 1905 to 1910 by two families
+# Glorioso Is - inhabited until at least 1958
+# Juan de Nova - uninhabited
+# Tromelin - inhabited until at least 1958
+
+# Rwanda
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Kigali	2:00:16 -	LMT	1935 Jun
+			2:00	-	CAT
+
+# St Helena
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Atlantic/St_Helena	-0:22:48 -	LMT	1890		# Jamestown
+			-0:22:48 -	JMT	1951	# Jamestown Mean Time
+			 0:00	-	GMT
+# The other parts of the St Helena territory are similar:
+#	Tristan da Cunha: on GMT, say Whitman and the CIA
+#	Ascension: on GMT, says usno1995 and the CIA
+#	Gough (scientific station since 1955; sealers wintered previously):
+#		on GMT, says the CIA
+#	Inaccessible, Nightingale: no information, but probably GMT
+
+# Sao Tome and Principe
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Sao_Tome	 0:26:56 -	LMT	1884
+			-0:36:32 -	LMT	1912	# Lisbon Mean Time
+			 0:00	-	GMT
+
+# Senegal
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Dakar	-1:09:44 -	LMT	1912
+			-1:00	-	WAT	1941 Jun
+			 0:00	-	GMT
+
+# Seychelles
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Indian/Mahe	3:41:48 -	LMT	1906 Jun	# Victoria
+			4:00	-	SCT	# Seychelles Time
+# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30):
+# Aldabra, Farquhar, and Desroches, originally dependencies of the
+# Seychelles, were transferred to the British Indian Ocean Territory
+# in 1965 and returned to Seychelles control in 1976.  We don't know
+# whether this affected their time zone, so omit this for now.
+# Possibly the islands were uninhabited.
+
+# Sierra Leone
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+# Whitman gives Mar 31 - Aug 31 for 1931 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	SL	1935	1942	-	Jun	 1	0:00	0:40	SLST
+Rule	SL	1935	1942	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	WAT
+Rule	SL	1957	1962	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	SLST
+Rule	SL	1957	1962	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	GMT
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Freetown	-0:53:00 -	LMT	1882
+			-0:53:00 -	FMT	1913 Jun # Freetown Mean Time
+			-1:00	SL	%s	1957
+			 0:00	SL	%s
+
+# Somalia
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Africa/Mogadishu	3:01:28 -	LMT	1893 Nov
+			3:00	-	EAT	1931
+			2:30	-	BEAT	1957
+			3:00	-	EAT
+
+# South Africa
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	SA	1942	1943	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	-
+Rule	SA	1943	1944	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Africa/Johannesburg 1:52:00 -	LMT	1892 Feb 8
+			1:30	-	SAST	1903 Mar
+			2:00	SA	SAST
+# Marion and Prince Edward Is
+# scientific station since 1947
+# no information
+
+# Sudan
+#
+# From <a href="http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html">
+# Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13)
+# </a>, also reported by Michael De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen:
+# Clocks will be moved ahead for 60 minutes all over the Sudan as of noon
+# Saturday....  This was announced Thursday by Caretaker State Minister for
+# Manpower Abdul-Rahman Nur-Eddin.
+#
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Sudan	1970	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Sudan	1970	1985	-	Oct	15	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Sudan	1971	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Sudan	1972	1985	-	Apr	lastSun	0:00	1:00	S
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Khartoum	2:10:08 -	LMT	1931
+			2:00	Sudan	CA%sT	2000 Jan 15 12:00
+			3:00	-	EAT
+
+# Swaziland
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Mbabane	2:04:24 -	LMT	1903 Mar
+			2:00	-	SAST
+
+# Tanzania
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Africa/Dar_es_Salaam 2:37:08 -	LMT	1931
+			3:00	-	EAT	1948
+			2:44:45	-	BEAUT	1961
+			3:00	-	EAT
+
+# Togo
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Lome	0:04:52 -	LMT	1893
+			0:00	-	GMT
+
+# Tunisia
+
+# From Gwillim Law (2005-04-30):
+# My correspondent, Risto Nykanen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST,
+# this time in Tunisia.  According to Yahoo France News
+# <http://fr.news.yahoo.com/050426/5/4dumk.html>, in a story attributed to AP
+# and dated 2005-04-26, "Tunisia has decided to advance its official time by
+# one hour, starting on Sunday, May 1.  Henceforth, Tunisian time will be
+# UTC+2 instead of UTC+1.  The change will take place at 23:00 UTC next
+# Saturday."  (My translation)
+#
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-02):
+# LaPresse, the first national daily newspaper ...
+# <http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html>
+# ... DST for 2005: on: Sun May 1 0h standard time, off: Fri Sept. 30,
+# 1h standard time.
+#
+# From Atef Loukil (2006-03-28):
+# The daylight saving time will be the same each year:
+# Beginning      : the last Sunday of March at 02:00
+# Ending         : the last Sunday of October at 03:00 ...
+# http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1188&Itemid=50
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-16):
+# According to several news sources, Tunisia will not observe DST this year.
+# (Arabic)
+# <a href="http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546">
+# http://www.elbashayer.com/?page=viewn&nid=42546
+# </a>
+# <a href="http://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp">
+# http://www.babnet.net/kiwidetail-15295.asp
+# </a>
+#
+# We have also confirmed this with the US embassy in Tunisia.
+# We have a wrap-up about this on the following page:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/tunisia-cancels-dst-2009.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-17):
+# Here is a link to Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency
+#
+# Standard time to be kept the whole year long (tap.info.tn):
+#
+# (in English)
+# <a href="http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157">
+# http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=26813&Itemid=157
+# </a>
+#
+# (in Arabic)
+# <a href="http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1">
+# http://www.tap.info.tn/ar/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=61240&Itemid=1
+# </a>
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2009--3-18):
+# The Tunis Afrique Presse News Agency notice contains this: "This measure is due to the fact
+# that the fasting month of ramadan coincides with the period concerned by summer time.
+# Therefore, the standard time will be kept unchanged the whole year long."
+# So foregoing DST seems to be an exception (albeit one that may be repeated in the  future).
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-27):
+# According to some news reports Tunis confirmed not to use DST in 2010
+#
+# (translation):
+# "The Tunisian government has decided to abandon DST, which was scheduled on
+# Sunday...
+# Tunisian authorities had suspended the DST for the first time last year also
+# coincided with the month of Ramadan..."
+#
+# (in Arabic)
+# <a href="http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1">
+# http://www.moheet.com/show_news.aspx?nid=358861&pg=1
+# <a href="http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036">
+# http://www.almadenahnews.com/newss/news.php?c=118&id=38036
+# or
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_tunis02.html
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Tunisia	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Tunisia	1939	only	-	Nov	18	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Tunisia	1940	only	-	Feb	25	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Tunisia	1941	only	-	Oct	 6	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Tunisia	1942	only	-	Mar	 9	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Tunisia	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Tunisia	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Tunisia	1943	only	-	Apr	17	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Tunisia	1943	only	-	Apr	25	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Tunisia	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Tunisia	1944	1945	-	Apr	Mon>=1	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Tunisia	1944	only	-	Oct	 8	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Tunisia	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Tunisia	1977	only	-	Apr	30	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Tunisia	1977	only	-	Sep	24	 0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Tunisia	1978	only	-	May	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Tunisia	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Tunisia	1988	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Tunisia	1988	1990	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Tunisia	1989	only	-	Mar	26	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Tunisia	1990	only	-	May	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Tunisia	2005	only	-	May	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Tunisia	2005	only	-	Sep	30	 1:00s	0	-
+Rule	Tunisia	2006	2008	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Tunisia	2006	2008	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
+
+# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
+# more precise 0:09:21.
+# Shanks & Pottenger say the 1911 switch was on Mar 9; go with Howse's Mar 11.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Tunis	0:40:44 -	LMT	1881 May 12
+			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
+			1:00	Tunisia	CE%sT
+
+# Uganda
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Kampala	2:09:40 -	LMT	1928 Jul
+			3:00	-	EAT	1930
+			2:30	-	BEAT	1948
+			2:44:45	-	BEAUT	1957
+			3:00	-	EAT
+
+# Zambia
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Lusaka	1:53:08 -	LMT	1903 Mar
+			2:00	-	CAT
+
+# Zimbabwe
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Africa/Harare	2:04:12 -	LMT	1903 Mar
+			2:00	-	CAT
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/components/timezone/antarctica	Thu Aug 04 11:29:10 2011 +0530
@@ -0,0 +1,399 @@
+# <pre>
+# @(#)antarctica	8.9
+# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
+# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1999-11-15):
+# To keep things manageable, we list only locations occupied year-round; see
+# <a href="http://www.comnap.aq/comnap/comnap.nsf/P/Stations/">
+# COMNAP - Stations and Bases
+# </a>
+# and
+# <a href="http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/bob/periant.htm">
+# Summary of the Peri-Antarctic Islands (1998-07-23)
+# </a>
+# for information.
+# Unless otherwise specified, we have no time zone information.
+#
+# Except for the French entries,
+# I made up all time zone abbreviations mentioned here; corrections welcome!
+# FORMAT is `zzz' and GMTOFF is 0 for locations while uninhabited.
+
+# These rules are stolen from the `southamerica' file.
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	ArgAQ	1964	1966	-	Mar	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	ArgAQ	1964	1966	-	Oct	15	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	ArgAQ	1967	only	-	Apr	 2	0:00	0	-
+Rule	ArgAQ	1967	1968	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	ArgAQ	1968	1969	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	ArgAQ	1974	only	-	Jan	23	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	ArgAQ	1974	only	-	May	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	ChileAQ	1972	1986	-	Mar	Sun>=9	3:00u	0	-
+Rule	ChileAQ	1974	1987	-	Oct	Sun>=9	4:00u	1:00	S
+Rule	ChileAQ	1987	only	-	Apr	12	3:00u	0	-
+Rule	ChileAQ	1988	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=9	3:00u	0	-
+Rule	ChileAQ	1988	only	-	Oct	Sun>=1	4:00u	1:00	S
+Rule	ChileAQ	1989	only	-	Oct	Sun>=9	4:00u	1:00	S
+Rule	ChileAQ	1990	only	-	Mar	18	3:00u	0	-
+Rule	ChileAQ	1990	only	-	Sep	16	4:00u	1:00	S
+Rule	ChileAQ	1991	1996	-	Mar	Sun>=9	3:00u	0	-
+Rule	ChileAQ	1991	1997	-	Oct	Sun>=9	4:00u	1:00	S
+Rule	ChileAQ	1997	only	-	Mar	30	3:00u	0	-
+Rule	ChileAQ	1998	only	-	Mar	Sun>=9	3:00u	0	-
+Rule	ChileAQ	1998	only	-	Sep	27	4:00u	1:00	S
+Rule	ChileAQ	1999	only	-	Apr	 4	3:00u	0	-
+Rule	ChileAQ	1999	max	-	Oct	Sun>=9	4:00u	1:00	S
+Rule	ChileAQ	2000	max	-	Mar	Sun>=9	3:00u	0	-
+
+# These rules are stolen from the `australasia' file.
+Rule	AusAQ	1917	only	-	Jan	 1	0:01	1:00	-
+Rule	AusAQ	1917	only	-	Mar	25	2:00	0	-
+Rule	AusAQ	1942	only	-	Jan	 1	2:00	1:00	-
+Rule	AusAQ	1942	only	-	Mar	29	2:00	0	-
+Rule	AusAQ	1942	only	-	Sep	27	2:00	1:00	-
+Rule	AusAQ	1943	1944	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	-
+Rule	AusAQ	1943	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00	1:00	-
+Rule	ATAQ	1967	only	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	ATAQ	1968	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	ATAQ	1968	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	ATAQ	1969	1971	-	Mar	Sun>=8	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	ATAQ	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	ATAQ	1973	1981	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	ATAQ	1982	1983	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	ATAQ	1984	1986	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	ATAQ	1986	only	-	Oct	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	ATAQ	1987	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	ATAQ	1987	only	-	Oct	Sun>=22	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	ATAQ	1988	1990	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	ATAQ	1991	1999	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	ATAQ	1991	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	ATAQ	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	ATAQ	2001	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	ATAQ	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	ATAQ	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	ATAQ	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+
+# Argentina - year-round bases
+# Belgrano II, Confin Coast, -770227-0343737, since 1972-02-05
+# Esperanza, San Martin Land, -6323-05659, since 1952-12-17
+# Jubany, Potter Peninsula, King George Island, -6414-0602320, since 1982-01
+# Marambio, Seymour I, -6414-05637, since 1969-10-29
+# Orcadas, Laurie I, -6016-04444, since 1904-02-22
+# San Martin, Debenham I, -6807-06708, since 1951-03-21
+#	(except 1960-03 / 1976-03-21)
+
+# Australia - territories
+# Heard Island, McDonald Islands (uninhabited)
+#	previously sealers and scientific personnel wintered
+#	<a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20021204222245/http://www.dstc.qut.edu.au/DST/marg/daylight.html">
+#	Margaret Turner reports
+#	</a> (1999-09-30) that they're UTC+5, with no DST;
+#	presumably this is when they have visitors.
+#
+# year-round bases
+# Casey, Bailey Peninsula, -6617+11032, since 1969
+# Davis, Vestfold Hills, -6835+07759, since 1957-01-13
+#	(except 1964-11 - 1969-02)
+# Mawson, Holme Bay, -6736+06253, since 1954-02-13
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-11):
+# Three Australian stations in Antarctica have changed their time zone:
+# Casey moved from UTC+8 to UTC+11
+# Davis moved from UTC+7 to UTC+5
+# Mawson moved from UTC+6 to UTC+5
+# The changes occurred on 2009-10-18 at 02:00 (local times).
+#
+# Government source: (Australian Antarctic Division)
+# <a href="http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=37079">
+# http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=37079
+# </a>
+#
+# We have more background information here:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antarctica-new-times.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antarctica-new-times.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-10):
+# We got these changes from the Australian Antarctic Division:
+# - Macquarie Island will stay on UTC+11 for winter and therefore not
+# switch back from daylight savings time when other parts of Australia do
+# on 4 April.
+#
+# - Casey station reverted to its normal time of UTC+8 on 5 March 2010.
+# The change to UTC+11 is being considered as a regular summer thing but
+# has not been decided yet.
+#
+# - Davis station will revert to its normal time of UTC+7 at 10 March 2010
+# 20:00 UTC.
+#
+# - Mawson station stays on UTC+5.
+#
+# In addition to the Rule changes for Casey/Davis, it means that Macquarie
+# will no longer be like Hobart and will have to have its own Zone created.
+#
+# Background:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antartica-time-changes-2010.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/antartica-time-changes-2010.html
+# </a>
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Antarctica/Casey	0	-	zzz	1969
+			8:00	-	WST	2009 Oct 18 2:00
+						# Western (Aus) Standard Time
+			11:00	-	CAST	2010 Mar 5 2:00
+						# Casey Time
+			8:00	-	WST
+Zone Antarctica/Davis	0	-	zzz	1957 Jan 13
+			7:00	-	DAVT	1964 Nov # Davis Time
+			0	-	zzz	1969 Feb
+			7:00	-	DAVT	2009 Oct 18 2:00
+			5:00	-	DAVT	2010 Mar 10 20:00u
+			7:00	-	DAVT
+Zone Antarctica/Mawson	0	-	zzz	1954 Feb 13
+			6:00	-	MAWT	2009 Oct 18 2:00
+						# Mawson Time
+			5:00	-	MAWT
+Zone Antarctica/Macquarie 0	-	zzz	1911
+			10:00	-	EST	1916 Oct 1 2:00
+			10:00	1:00	EST	1917 Feb
+			10:00	AusAQ	EST	1967
+			10:00	ATAQ	EST	2010 Apr 4 3:00
+			11:00	-	MIST	# Macquarie Island Time
+# References:
+# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/casey/casey_aws.html">
+# Casey Weather (1998-02-26)
+# </a>
+# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/davis/video.html">
+# Davis Station, Antarctica (1998-02-26)
+# </a>
+# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/mawson/video.html">
+# Mawson Station, Antarctica (1998-02-25)
+# </a>
+
+# Brazil - year-round base
+# Comandante Ferraz, King George Island, -6205+05824, since 1983/4
+
+# Chile - year-round bases and towns
+# Escudero, South Shetland Is, -621157-0585735, since 1994
+# Presidente Eduadro Frei, King George Island, -6214-05848, since 1969-03-07
+# General Bernardo O'Higgins, Antarctic Peninsula, -6319-05704, since 1948-02
+# Capitan Arturo Prat, -6230-05941
+# Villa Las Estrellas (a town), around the Frei base, since 1984-04-09
+# These locations have always used Santiago time; use TZ='America/Santiago'.
+
+# China - year-round bases
+# Great Wall, King George Island, -6213-05858, since 1985-02-20
+# Zhongshan, Larsemann Hills, Prydz Bay, -6922+07623, since 1989-02-26
+
+# France - year-round bases
+#
+# From Antoine Leca (1997-01-20):
+# Time data are from Nicole Pailleau at the IFRTP
+# (French Institute for Polar Research and Technology).
+# She confirms that French Southern Territories and Terre Adelie bases
+# don't observe daylight saving time, even if Terre Adelie supplies came
+# from Tasmania.
+#
+# French Southern Territories with year-round inhabitants
+#
+# Martin-de-Vivies Base, Amsterdam Island, -374105+0773155, since 1950
+# Alfred-Faure Base, Crozet Islands, -462551+0515152, since 1964
+# Port-aux-Francais, Kerguelen Islands, -492110+0701303, since 1951;
+#	whaling & sealing station operated 1908/1914, 1920/1929, and 1951/1956
+#
+# St Paul Island - near Amsterdam, uninhabited
+#	fishing stations operated variously 1819/1931
+#
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Indian/Kerguelen	0	-	zzz	1950	# Port-aux-Francais
+			5:00	-	TFT	# ISO code TF Time
+#
+# year-round base in the main continent
+# Dumont-d'Urville, Ile des Petrels, -6640+14001, since 1956-11
+#
+# Another base at Port-Martin, 50km east, began operation in 1947.
+# It was destroyed by fire on 1952-01-14.
+#
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Antarctica/DumontDUrville 0 -	zzz	1947
+			10:00	-	PMT	1952 Jan 14 # Port-Martin Time
+			0	-	zzz	1956 Nov
+			10:00	-	DDUT	# Dumont-d'Urville Time
+# Reference:
+# <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dumont_d'Urville_Station">
+# Dumont d'Urville Station (2005-12-05)
+# </a>
+
+# Germany - year-round base
+# Georg von Neumayer, -7039-00815
+
+# India - year-round base
+# Dakshin Gangotri, -7005+01200
+
+# Japan - year-round bases
+# Dome Fuji, -7719+03942
+# Syowa, -690022+0393524
+#
+# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1999-02-06):
+# In all Japanese stations, +0300 is used as the standard time.
+#
+# Syowa station, which is the first antarctic station of Japan,
+# was established on 1957-01-29.  Since Syowa station is still the main
+# station of Japan, it's appropriate for the principal location.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Antarctica/Syowa	0	-	zzz	1957 Jan 29
+			3:00	-	SYOT	# Syowa Time
+# See:
+# <a href="http://www.nipr.ac.jp/english/ara01.html">
+# NIPR Antarctic Research Activities (1999-08-17)
+# </a>
+
+# S Korea - year-round base
+# King Sejong, King George Island, -6213-05847, since 1988
+
+# New Zealand - claims
+# Balleny Islands (never inhabited)
+# Scott Island (never inhabited)
+#
+# year-round base
+# Scott, Ross Island, since 1957-01, is like Antarctica/McMurdo.
+#
+# These rules for New Zealand are stolen from the `australasia' file.
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	NZAQ	1974	only	-	Nov	 3	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	NZAQ	1975	1988	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	NZAQ	1989	only	-	Oct	 8	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	NZAQ	1990	2006	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	NZAQ	1975	only	-	Feb	23	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	NZAQ	1976	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	NZAQ	1990	2007	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	NZAQ	2007	max	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	NZAQ	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+
+# Norway - territories
+# Bouvet (never inhabited)
+#
+# claims
+# Peter I Island (never inhabited)
+
+# Poland - year-round base
+# Arctowski, King George Island, -620945-0582745, since 1977
+
+# Russia - year-round bases
+# Bellingshausen, King George Island, -621159-0585337, since 1968-02-22
+# Mirny, Davis coast, -6633+09301, since 1956-02
+# Molodezhnaya, Alasheyev Bay, -6740+04551,
+#	year-round from 1962-02 to 1999-07-01
+# Novolazarevskaya, Queen Maud Land, -7046+01150,
+#	year-round from 1960/61 to 1992
+
+# Vostok, since 1957-12-16, temporarily closed 1994-02/1994-11
+# <a href="http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/antarctica/QA/computers/Directions,Time,ZIP">
+# From Craig Mundell (1994-12-15)</a>:
+# Vostok, which is one of the Russian stations, is set on the same
+# time as Moscow, Russia.
+#
+# From Lee Hotz (2001-03-08):
+# I queried the folks at Columbia who spent the summer at Vostok and this is
+# what they had to say about time there:
+# ``in the US Camp (East Camp) we have been on New Zealand (McMurdo)
+# time, which is 12 hours ahead of GMT. The Russian Station Vostok was
+# 6 hours behind that (although only 2 miles away, i.e. 6 hours ahead
+# of GMT). This is a time zone I think two hours east of Moscow. The
+# natural time zone is in between the two: 8 hours ahead of GMT.''
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-04):
+# This seems to be hopelessly confusing, so I asked Lee Hotz about it
+# in person.  He said that some Antartic locations set their local
+# time so that noon is the warmest part of the day, and that this
+# changes during the year and does not necessarily correspond to mean
+# solar noon.  So the Vostok time might have been whatever the clocks
+# happened to be during their visit.  So we still don't really know what time
+# it is at Vostok.  But we'll guess UTC+6.
+#
+Zone Antarctica/Vostok	0	-	zzz	1957 Dec 16
+			6:00	-	VOST	# Vostok time
+
+# S Africa - year-round bases
+# Marion Island, -4653+03752
+# Sanae, -7141-00250
+
+# UK
+#
+# British Antarctic Territories (BAT) claims
+# South Orkney Islands
+#	scientific station from 1903
+#	whaling station at Signy I 1920/1926
+# South Shetland Islands
+#
+# year-round bases
+# Bird Island, South Georgia, -5400-03803, since 1983
+# Deception Island, -6259-06034, whaling station 1912/1931,
+#	scientific station 1943/1967,
+#	previously sealers and a scientific expedition wintered by accident,
+#	and a garrison was deployed briefly
+# Halley, Coates Land, -7535-02604, since 1956-01-06
+#	Halley is on a moving ice shelf and is periodically relocated
+#	so that it is never more than 10km from its nominal location.
+# Rothera, Adelaide Island, -6734-6808, since 1976-12-01
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2002-10-22)
+# <http://webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/g.html> says Rothera is -03 all year.
+#
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Antarctica/Rothera	0	-	zzz	1976 Dec  1
+			-3:00	-	ROTT	# Rothera time
+
+# Uruguay - year round base
+# Artigas, King George Island, -621104-0585107
+
+# USA - year-round bases
+#
+# Palmer, Anvers Island, since 1965 (moved 2 miles in 1968)
+#
+# From Ethan Dicks (1996-10-06):
+# It keeps the same time as Punta Arenas, Chile, because, just like us
+# and the South Pole, that's the other end of their supply line....
+# I verified with someone who was there that since 1980,
+# Palmer has followed Chile.  Prior to that, before the Falklands War,
+# Palmer used to be supplied from Argentina.
+#
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Antarctica/Palmer	0	-	zzz	1965
+			-4:00	ArgAQ	AR%sT	1969 Oct 5
+			-3:00	ArgAQ	AR%sT	1982 May
+			-4:00	ChileAQ	CL%sT
+#
+#
+# McMurdo, Ross Island, since 1955-12
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Antarctica/McMurdo	0	-	zzz	1956
+			12:00	NZAQ	NZ%sT
+#
+# Amundsen-Scott, South Pole, continuously occupied since 1956-11-20
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
+# Normally it wouldn't have a separate entry, since it's like the
+# larger Antarctica/McMurdo since 1970, but it's too famous to omit.
+#
+# From Chris Carrier (1996-06-27):
+# Siple, the first commander of the South Pole station,
+# stated that he would have liked to have kept GMT at the station,
+# but that he found it more convenient to keep GMT+12
+# as supplies for the station were coming from McMurdo Sound,
+# which was on GMT+12 because New Zealand was on GMT+12 all year
+# at that time (1957).  (Source: Siple's book 90 degrees SOUTH.)
+#
+# From Susan Smith
+# http://www.cybertours.com/whs/pole10.html
+# (1995-11-13 16:24:56 +1300, no longer available):
+# We use the same time as McMurdo does.
+# And they use the same time as Christchurch, NZ does....
+# One last quirk about South Pole time.
+# All the electric clocks are usually wrong.
+# Something about the generators running at 60.1hertz or something
+# makes all of the clocks run fast.  So every couple of days,
+# we have to go around and set them back 5 minutes or so.
+# Maybe if we let them run fast all of the time, we'd get to leave here sooner!!
+#
+Link	Antarctica/McMurdo	Antarctica/South_Pole
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/components/timezone/asia	Thu Aug 04 11:29:10 2011 +0530
@@ -0,0 +1,2590 @@
+# @(#)asia	8.65
+# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
+# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
+
+# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
+# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
+# [email protected] for general use in the future).
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+#
+# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
+# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
+# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
+#
+# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
+# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
+# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
+# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
+# of the IATA's data after 1990.
+#
+# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
+# entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
+#
+# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
+# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
+# I found in the UCLA library.
+#
+# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
+# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
+#
+# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
+# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
+# Corrections are welcome!
+#	     std  dst
+#	     LMT	Local Mean Time
+#	2:00 EET  EEST	Eastern European Time
+#	2:00 IST  IDT	Israel
+#	3:00 AST  ADT	Arabia*
+#	3:30 IRST IRDT	Iran
+#	4:00 GST	Gulf*
+#	5:30 IST	India
+#	7:00 ICT	Indochina*
+#	7:00 WIT	west Indonesia
+#	8:00 CIT	central Indonesia
+#	8:00 CST	China
+#	9:00 CJT	Central Japanese Time (1896/1937)*
+#	9:00 EIT	east Indonesia
+#	9:00 JST  JDT	Japan
+#	9:00 KST  KDT	Korea
+#	9:30 CST	(Australian) Central Standard Time
+#
+# See the `europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.
+
+# From Guy Harris:
+# Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as
+# additional information from Tom Yap, Sun Microsystems Intercontinental
+# Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide -
+# Worldwide Edition).  The names for time zones are guesses.
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# These rules are stolen from the `europe' file.
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	EUAsia	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	1:00	S
+Rule	EUAsia	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
+Rule	EUAsia	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
+Rule E-EurAsia	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule E-EurAsia	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
+Rule E-EurAsia	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
+Rule RussiaAsia	1981	1984	-	Apr	1	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule RussiaAsia	1981	1983	-	Oct	1	 0:00	0	-
+Rule RussiaAsia	1984	1991	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule RussiaAsia	1985	1991	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule RussiaAsia	1992	only	-	Mar	lastSat	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule RussiaAsia	1992	only	-	Sep	lastSat	23:00	0	-
+Rule RussiaAsia	1993	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule RussiaAsia	1993	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule RussiaAsia	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
+# While Russia abandoned DST in 2011, Armenia may choose to
+# follow Russia's "old" rules.
+
+# Afghanistan
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Kabul	4:36:48 -	LMT	1890
+			4:00	-	AFT	1945
+			4:30	-	AFT
+
+# Armenia
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# Shanks & Pottenger have Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST)
+# in spring 1991, then to 4:00 with no DST in fall 1995, then
+# readopting Russian DST in 1997.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger, even
+# when they disagree with others.  Edgar Der-Danieliantz
+# reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST
+# in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995.  IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that
+# Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991,
+# but started switching at 3:00s in 1998.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Yerevan	2:58:00 -	LMT	1924 May  2
+			3:00	-	YERT	1957 Mar    # Yerevan Time
+			4:00 RussiaAsia YER%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			3:00	1:00	YERST	1991 Sep 23 # independence
+			3:00 RussiaAsia	AM%sT	1995 Sep 24 2:00s
+			4:00	-	AMT	1997
+			4:00 RussiaAsia	AM%sT
+
+# Azerbaijan
+# From Rustam Aliyev of the Azerbaijan Internet Forum (2005-10-23):
+# According to the resolution of Cabinet of Ministers, 1997
+# Resolution available at: http://aif.az/docs/daylight_res.pdf
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Azer	1997	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 4:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Azer	1997	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 5:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Baku	3:19:24 -	LMT	1924 May  2
+			3:00	-	BAKT	1957 Mar    # Baku Time
+			4:00 RussiaAsia BAK%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			3:00	1:00	BAKST	1991 Aug 30 # independence
+			3:00 RussiaAsia	AZ%sT	1992 Sep lastSat 23:00
+			4:00	-	AZT	1996 # Azerbaijan time
+			4:00	EUAsia	AZ%sT	1997
+			4:00	Azer	AZ%sT
+
+# Bahrain
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Bahrain	3:22:20 -	LMT	1920		# Al Manamah
+			4:00	-	GST	1972 Jun
+			3:00	-	AST
+
+# Bangladesh
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-05-13):
+# According to newspaper Asian Tribune (May 6, 2009) Bangladesh may introduce
+# Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30
+#
+# Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16
+# <a href="http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288">
+# http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288
+# </a>
+# or
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html
+# </a>
+#
+# "... Bangladesh government has decided to switch daylight saving time from
+# June
+# 16 till September 30 in a bid to ensure maximum use of daylight to cope with
+# crippling power crisis. "
+#
+# The switch will remain in effect from June 16 to Sept 30 (2009) but if
+# implemented the next year, it will come in force from April 1, 2010
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-02):
+# They have finally decided now, but changed the start date to midnight between
+# the 19th and 20th, and they have not set the end date yet.
+#
+# Some sources:
+# <a href="http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601">
+# http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601
+# </a>
+# <a href="http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2">
+# http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2
+# </a>
+#
+# Our wrap-up:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html
+# </a>
+
+# From A. N. M. Kamrus Saadat (2009-06-15):
+# Finally we've got the official mail regarding DST start time where DST start 
+# time is mentioned as Jun 19 2009, 23:00 from BTRC (Bangladesh 
+# Telecommunication Regulatory Commission). 
+#
+# No DST end date has been announced yet.
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-25):
+# Bangladesh won't go back to Standard Time from October 1, 2009, 
+# instead it will continue DST measure till the cabinet makes a fresh decision. 
+#
+# Following report by same newspaper-"The Daily Star Friday":
+# "DST change awaits cabinet decision-Clock won't go back by 1-hr from Oct 1"
+# <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021">
+# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021
+# </a>
+# or
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-13):
+# IANS (Indo-Asian News Service) now reports:
+# Bangladesh has decided that the clock advanced by an hour to make 
+# maximum use of daylight hours as an energy saving measure would 
+# "continue for an indefinite period."
+#
+# One of many places where it is published:
+# <a href="http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html">
+# http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-12-24):
+# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
+# Bangladesh will change its clock back to Standard Time on Dec 31, 2009.
+#
+# Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night.
+# <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228">
+# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228
+# </a>
+# and
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html
+# </a>
+#
+# "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour
+# on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31,
+# 2010 midnight. The decision came at a cabinet meeting at the Prime
+# Minister's Office last night..."
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22):
+# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
+# Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time 
+# <a href="http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817">
+# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817
+# </a>
+# or
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html
+# </a>
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Dhaka	2009	only	-	Jun	19	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Dhaka	2009	only	-	Dec	31	23:59	0	-
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Dhaka	6:01:40 -	LMT	1890
+			5:53:20	-	HMT	1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
+			6:30	-	BURT	1942 May 15 # Burma Time
+			5:30	-	IST	1942 Sep
+			6:30	-	BURT	1951 Sep 30
+			6:00	-	DACT	1971 Mar 26 # Dacca Time
+			6:00	-	BDT	2009
+			6:00	Dhaka	BD%sT
+
+# Bhutan
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Thimphu	5:58:36 -	LMT	1947 Aug 15 # or Thimbu
+			5:30	-	IST	1987 Oct
+			6:00	-	BTT	# Bhutan Time
+
+# British Indian Ocean Territory
+# Whitman and the 1995 CIA time zone map say 5:00, but the
+# 1997 and later maps say 6:00.  Assume the switch occurred in 1996.
+# We have no information as to when standard time was introduced;
+# assume it occurred in 1907, the same year as Mauritius (which
+# then contained the Chagos Archipelago).
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Indian/Chagos	4:49:40	-	LMT	1907
+			5:00	-	IOT	1996 # BIOT Time
+			6:00	-	IOT
+
+# Brunei
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Brunei	7:39:40 -	LMT	1926 Mar   # Bandar Seri Begawan
+			7:30	-	BNT	1933
+			8:00	-	BNT
+
+# Burma / Myanmar
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Rangoon	6:24:40 -	LMT	1880		# or Yangon
+			6:24:36	-	RMT	1920	   # Rangoon Mean Time?
+			6:30	-	BURT	1942 May   # Burma Time
+			9:00	-	JST	1945 May 3
+			6:30	-	MMT		   # Myanmar Time
+
+# Cambodia
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Phnom_Penh	6:59:40 -	LMT	1906 Jun  9
+			7:06:20	-	SMT	1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT?
+			7:00	-	ICT	1912 May
+			8:00	-	ICT	1931 May
+			7:00	-	ICT
+
+# China
+
+# From Guy Harris:
+# People's Republic of China.  Yes, they really have only one time zone.
+
+# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
+# No they don't.  See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52.  Even though
+# China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the
+# Peking (Bejing) time zone was recognized.  Since that date, China
+# has two of 'em -- Peking's and Urumqi (named after the capital of
+# the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region).  I don't know about DST for it.
+#
+# . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too
+# painful to suck in another copy..  So, here is what I have for
+# DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP):
+#
+#     1986 May 4 - Sept 14
+#     1987 mid-April - ??
+
+# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
+# CHINA               8 H  AHEAD OF UTC  ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN
+# CHINA               9 H  AHEAD OF UTC  APR 17 - SEP 10
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# Shanks & Pottenger write that China (except for Hong Kong and Macau)
+# has had a single time zone since 1980 May 1, observing summer DST
+# from 1986 through 1991; this contradicts Devine's
+# note about Time magazine, though apparently _something_ happened in 1986.
+# Go with Shanks & Pottenger for now.  I made up names for the other
+# pre-1980 time zones.
+
+# From Shanks & Pottenger:
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Shang	1940	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Shang	1940	1941	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Shang	1941	only	-	Mar	16	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	PRC	1986	only	-	May	 4	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	PRC	1986	1991	-	Sep	Sun>=11	0:00	0	S
+Rule	PRC	1987	1991	-	Apr	Sun>=10	0:00	1:00	D
+
+# From Anthony Fok (2001-12-20):
+# BTW, I did some research on-line and found some info regarding these five
+# historic timezones from some Taiwan websites.  And yes, there are official
+# Chinese names for these locales (before 1949).
+#
+# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-07-14):
+# I have investigated the timezones around 1970 on the
+# http://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county
+# boundaries summarized below]....  A few other exceptions were two
+# counties on the Sichuan side of the Xizang-Sichuan border,
+# counties Dege and Baiyu which lies on the Sichuan side and are
+# therefore supposed to be GMT+7, Xizang region being GMT+6, but Dege
+# county is GMT+8 according to astro.com while Baiyu county is GMT+6
+# (could be true), for the moment I am assuming that those two
+# counties are mistakes in the astro.com data.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11):
+# I just now checked Google News for western news sources that talk
+# about China's single time zone, and couldn't find anything before 1986
+# talking about China being in one time zone.  (That article was: Jim
+# Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight
+# time--sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05.  By the way, this
+# article confirms the tz database's data claiming that China began
+# observing daylight saving time in 1986.
+#
+# From Thomas S. Mullaney (2008-02-11):
+# I think you're combining two subjects that need to treated 
+# separately: daylight savings (which, you're correct, wasn't 
+# implemented until the 1980s) and the unified time zone centered near 
+# Beijing (which was implemented in 1949). Briefly, there was also a 
+# "Lhasa Time" in Tibet and "Urumqi Time" in Xinjiang. The first was 
+# ceased, and the second eventually recognized (again, in the 1980s).
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2008-06-30):
+# There seems to be a good chance China switched to a single time zone in 1949
+# rather than in 1980 as Shanks & Pottenger have it, but we don't have a
+# reliable documentary source saying so yet, so for now we still go with
+# Shanks & Pottenger.
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+# Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area)
+# Heilongjiang (except Mohe county), Jilin
+Zone	Asia/Harbin	8:26:44	-	LMT	1928 # or Haerbin
+			8:30	-	CHAT	1932 Mar # Changbai Time
+			8:00	-	CST	1940
+			9:00	-	CHAT	1966 May
+			8:30	-	CHAT	1980 May
+			8:00	PRC	C%sT
+# Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time")
+# most of China
+Zone	Asia/Shanghai	8:05:52	-	LMT	1928
+			8:00	Shang	C%sT	1949
+			8:00	PRC	C%sT
+# Long-shu Time (probably due to Long and Shu being two names of that area)
+# Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Yunnan;
+# most of Gansu; west Inner Mongolia; west Qinghai; and the Guangdong
+# counties Deqing, Enping, Kaiping, Luoding, Taishan, Xinxing,
+# Yangchun, Yangjiang, Yu'nan, and Yunfu.
+Zone	Asia/Chongqing	7:06:20	-	LMT	1928 # or Chungking
+			7:00	-	LONT	1980 May # Long-shu Time
+			8:00	PRC	C%sT
+# Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time")
+# The Gansu counties Aksay, Anxi, Dunhuang, Subei; west Qinghai;
+# the Guangdong counties  Xuwen, Haikang, Suixi, Lianjiang,
+# Zhanjiang, Wuchuan, Huazhou, Gaozhou, Maoming, Dianbai, and Xinyi;
+# east Tibet, including Lhasa, Chamdo, Shigaise, Jimsar, Shawan and Hutubi;
+# east Xinjiang, including Urumqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe,
+# Wusu, Qiemo, Xinyan, Wulanwusu, Jinghe, Yumin, Tacheng, Tuoli, Emin,
+# Shihezi, Changji, Yanqi, Heshuo, Tuokexun, Tulufan, Shanshan, Hami,
+# Fukang, Kuitun, Kumukuli, Miquan, Qitai, and Turfan.
+Zone	Asia/Urumqi	5:50:20	-	LMT	1928 # or Urumchi
+			6:00	-	URUT	1980 May # Urumqi Time
+			8:00	PRC	C%sT
+# Kunlun Time
+# West Tibet, including Pulan, Aheqi, Shufu, Shule;
+# West Xinjiang, including Aksu, Atushi, Yining, Hetian, Cele, Luopu, Nileke,
+# Zhaosu, Tekesi, Gongliu, Chabuchaer, Huocheng, Bole, Pishan, Suiding,
+# and Yarkand.
+
+# From Luther Ma (2009-10-17):
+# Almost all (>99.9%) ethnic Chinese (properly ethnic Han) living in
+# Xinjiang use Chinese Standard Time. Some are aware of Xinjiang time,
+# but have no need of it. All planes, trains, and schools function on
+# what is called "Beijing time." When Han make an appointment in Chinese
+# they implicitly use Beijing time.
+#
+# On the other hand, ethnic Uyghurs, who make up about half the
+# population of Xinjiang, typically use "Xinjiang time" which is two
+# hours behind Beijing time, or UTC +0600. The government of the Xinjiang
+# Uyghur Autonomous Region, (XAUR, or just Xinjiang for short) as well as
+# local governments such as the Urumqi city government use both times in
+# publications, referring to what is popularly called Xinjiang time as
+# "Urumqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language
+# they almost invariably use Xinjiang time.
+#
+# (Their ethnic Han compatriots would typically have no clue of its
+# widespread use, however, because so extremely few of them are fluent in
+# Uyghur, comparable to the number of Anglo-Americans fluent in Navajo.)
+#
+# (...As with the rest of China there was a brief interval ending in 1990
+# or 1991 when summer time was in use.  The confusion was severe, with
+# the province not having dual times but four times in use at the same
+# time. Some areas remained on standard Xinjiang time or Beijing time and
+# others moving their clocks ahead.)
+#
+# ...an example of an official website using of Urumqi time.
+#
+# The first few lines of the Google translation of
+# <a href="http://www.fjysgl.gov.cn/show.aspx?id=2379&cid=39">
+# http://www.fjysgl.gov.cn/show.aspx?id=2379&cid=39
+# </a>
+# (retrieved 2009-10-13)
+# > Urumqi fire seven people are missing the alleged losses of at least
+# > 500 million yuan
+# >
+# > (Reporter Dong Liu) the day before 20:20 or so (Urumqi Time 18:20),
+# > Urumqi City Department of International Plaza Luther Qiantang River
+# > burst fire. As of yesterday, 18:30, Urumqi City Fire officers and men
+# > have worked continuously for 22 hours...
+
+# From Luther Ma (2009-11-19):
+# With the risk of being redundant to previous answers these are the most common
+# English "transliterations" (w/o using non-English symbols):
+#
+# 1. Wulumuqi...
+# 2. Kashi...
+# 3. Urumqi...
+# 4. Kashgar...
+# ...
+# 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Urumqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the
+# 1960's. I know of one Han, now over 50, who grew up in the surrounding
+# countryside and used Xinjiang time as a child.
+#
+# 6. Likewise for Kashgar and the rest of south Xinjiang I don't know of any
+# start date for Xinjiang time.
+#
+# Without having access to local historical records, nor the ability to legally
+# publish them, I would go with October 1, 1949, when Xinjiang became the Uyghur
+# Autonomous Region under the PRC. (Before that Uyghurs, of course, would also
+# not be using Beijing time, but some local time.)
+
+Zone	Asia/Kashgar	5:03:56	-	LMT	1928 # or Kashi or Kaxgar
+			5:30	-	KAST	1940	 # Kashgar Time
+			5:00	-	KAST	1980 May
+			8:00	PRC	C%sT
+
+
+# From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24):
+# I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong
+# Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually,
+# it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK,
+# and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing
+# and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
+# think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
+# obtained from
+# <a href="http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm">
+# http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
+# </a>.
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
+# Here are the dates given at
+# <a href="http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm">
+# http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
+# </a>
+# as of 2009-10-28:
+# Year        Period
+# 1941        1 Apr to 30 Sep
+# 1942        Whole year 
+# 1943        Whole year
+# 1944        Whole year
+# 1945        Whole year
+# 1946        20 Apr to 1 Dec
+# 1947        13 Apr to 30 Dec
+# 1948        2 May to 31 Oct
+# 1949        3 Apr to 30 Oct
+# 1950        2 Apr to 29 Oct
+# 1951        1 Apr to 28 Oct
+# 1952        6 Apr to 25 Oct
+# 1953        5 Apr to 1 Nov
+# 1954        21 Mar to 31 Oct
+# 1955        20 Mar to 6 Nov
+# 1956        18 Mar to 4 Nov
+# 1957        24 Mar to 3 Nov
+# 1958        23 Mar to 2 Nov
+# 1959        22 Mar to 1 Nov
+# 1960        20 Mar to 6 Nov
+# 1961        19 Mar to 5 Nov
+# 1962        18 Mar to 4 Nov
+# 1963        24 Mar to 3 Nov
+# 1964        22 Mar to 1 Nov
+# 1965        18 Apr to 17 Oct
+# 1966        17 Apr to 16 Oct
+# 1967        16 Apr to 22 Oct
+# 1968        21 Apr to 20 Oct
+# 1969        20 Apr to 19 Oct
+# 1970        19 Apr to 18 Oct
+# 1971        18 Apr to 17 Oct
+# 1972        16 Apr to 22 Oct
+# 1973        22 Apr to 21 Oct
+# 1973/74     30 Dec 73 to 20 Oct 74
+# 1975        20 Apr to 19 Oct
+# 1976        18 Apr to 17 Oct
+# 1977        Nil
+# 1978        Nil
+# 1979        13 May to 21 Oct
+# 1980 to Now Nil
+# The page does not give start or end times of day.
+# The page does not give a start date for 1942.
+# The page does not givw an end date for 1945.
+# The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began on 1941-12-25.
+# The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-15.
+# For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the transition times.
+
+# Hong Kong (Xianggang)
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	HK	1941	only	-	Apr	1	3:30	1:00	S
+Rule	HK	1941	only	-	Sep	30	3:30	0	-
+Rule	HK	1946	only	-	Apr	20	3:30	1:00	S
+Rule	HK	1946	only	-	Dec	1	3:30	0	-
+Rule	HK	1947	only	-	Apr	13	3:30	1:00	S
+Rule	HK	1947	only	-	Dec	30	3:30	0	-
+Rule	HK	1948	only	-	May	2	3:30	1:00	S
+Rule	HK	1948	1951	-	Oct	lastSun	3:30	0	-
+Rule	HK	1952	only	-	Oct	25	3:30	0	-
+Rule	HK	1949	1953	-	Apr	Sun>=1	3:30	1:00	S
+Rule	HK	1953	only	-	Nov	1	3:30	0	-
+Rule	HK	1954	1964	-	Mar	Sun>=18	3:30	1:00	S
+Rule	HK	1954	only	-	Oct	31	3:30	0	-
+Rule	HK	1955	1964	-	Nov	Sun>=1	3:30	0	-
+Rule	HK	1965	1976	-	Apr	Sun>=16	3:30	1:00	S
+Rule	HK	1965	1976	-	Oct	Sun>=16	3:30	0	-
+Rule	HK	1973	only	-	Dec	30	3:30	1:00	S
+Rule	HK	1979	only	-	May	Sun>=8	3:30	1:00	S
+Rule	HK	1979	only	-	Oct	Sun>=16	3:30	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Hong_Kong	7:36:36 -	LMT	1904 Oct 30
+			8:00	HK	HK%sT	1941 Dec 25
+			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 15
+			8:00	HK	HK%sT
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# Taiwan
+
+# Shanks & Pottenger write that Taiwan observed DST during 1945, when it
+# was still controlled by Japan.  This is hard to believe, but we don't
+# have any other information.
+
+# From smallufo (2010-04-03):
+# According to Taiwan's CWB,
+# <a href="http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm">
+# http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm
+# </a>
+# Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2010-04-07):
+# Here's Google's translation of the table at the bottom of the "summert.htm" page:
+# Decade 	                                                    Name                      Start and end date
+# Republic of China 34 years to 40 years (AD 1945-1951 years) Summer Time               May 1 to September 30 
+# 41 years of the Republic of China (AD 1952)                 Daylight Saving Time      March 1 to October 31 
+# Republic of China 42 years to 43 years (AD 1953-1954 years) Daylight Saving Time      April 1 to October 31 
+# In the 44 years to 45 years (AD 1955-1956 years)            Daylight Saving Time      April 1 to September 30 
+# Republic of China 46 years to 48 years (AD 1957-1959)       Summer Time               April 1 to September 30 
+# Republic of China 49 years to 50 years (AD 1960-1961)       Summer Time               June 1 to September 30 
+# Republic of China 51 years to 62 years (AD 1962-1973 years) Stop Summer Time 
+# Republic of China 63 years to 64 years (1974-1975 AD)       Daylight Saving Time      April 1 to September 30 
+# Republic of China 65 years to 67 years (1976-1978 AD)       Stop Daylight Saving Time 
+# Republic of China 68 years (AD 1979)                        Daylight Saving Time      July 1 to September 30 
+# Republic of China since 69 years (AD 1980)                  Stop Daylight Saving Time
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Taiwan	1945	1951	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Taiwan	1945	1951	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Taiwan	1952	only	-	Mar	1	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Taiwan	1952	1954	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Taiwan	1953	1959	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Taiwan	1955	1961	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Taiwan	1960	1961	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Taiwan	1974	1975	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Taiwan	1974	1975	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Taiwan	1979	only	-	Jun	30	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Taiwan	1979	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	S
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Taipei	8:06:00 -	LMT	1896 # or Taibei or T'ai-pei
+			8:00	Taiwan	C%sT
+
+# Macau (Macao, Aomen)
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Macau	1961	1962	-	Mar	Sun>=16	3:30	1:00	S
+Rule	Macau	1961	1964	-	Nov	Sun>=1	3:30	0	-
+Rule	Macau	1963	only	-	Mar	Sun>=16	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Macau	1964	only	-	Mar	Sun>=16	3:30	1:00	S
+Rule	Macau	1965	only	-	Mar	Sun>=16	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Macau	1965	only	-	Oct	31	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Macau	1966	1971	-	Apr	Sun>=16	3:30	1:00	S
+Rule	Macau	1966	1971	-	Oct	Sun>=16	3:30	0	-
+Rule	Macau	1972	1974	-	Apr	Sun>=15	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Macau	1972	1973	-	Oct	Sun>=15	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Macau	1974	1977	-	Oct	Sun>=15	3:30	0	-
+Rule	Macau	1975	1977	-	Apr	Sun>=15	3:30	1:00	S
+Rule	Macau	1978	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=15	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Macau	1978	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=15	0:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Macau	7:34:20 -	LMT	1912
+			8:00	Macau	MO%sT	1999 Dec 20 # return to China
+			8:00	PRC	C%sT
+
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# Cyprus
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Cyprus	1975	only	-	Apr	13	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Cyprus	1975	only	-	Oct	12	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Cyprus	1976	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Cyprus	1976	only	-	Oct	11	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Cyprus	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Cyprus	1977	only	-	Sep	25	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Cyprus	1978	only	-	Oct	2	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Cyprus	1979	1997	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Cyprus	1981	1998	-	Mar	lastSun	0:00	1:00	S
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Nicosia	2:13:28 -	LMT	1921 Nov 14
+			2:00	Cyprus	EE%sT	1998 Sep
+			2:00	EUAsia	EE%sT
+# IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time.
+
+# Classically, Cyprus belongs to Asia; e.g. see Herodotus, Histories, I.72.
+# However, for various reasons many users expect to find it under Europe.
+Link	Asia/Nicosia	Europe/Nicosia
+
+# Georgia
+# From Paul Eggert (1994-11-19):
+# Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward
+# an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze,
+# an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it!
+# We have no details, but we'll guess they didn't move the clocks back in fall.
+#
+# From Mathew Englander, quoting AP (1996-10-23 13:05-04):
+# Instead of putting back clocks at the end of October, Georgia
+# will stay on daylight savings time this winter to save energy,
+# President Eduard Shevardnadze decreed Wednesday.
+#
+# From the BBC via Joseph S. Myers (2004-06-27):
+#
+# Georgia moved closer to Western Europe on Sunday...  The former Soviet
+# republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow.  As a result it
+# is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours
+# ahead.  The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia,
+# Mikhail Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process
+# of integration into Europe.
+
+# From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07):
+# Government of Georgia ... decided to NOT CHANGE daylight savings time on
+# [Oct.] 30, as it was done before during last more than 10 years.
+# Currently, we are in fact GMT +4:00, as before 30 October it was GMT
+# +3:00.... The problem is, there is NO FORMAL LAW or governmental document
+# about it.  As far as I can find, I was told, that there is no document,
+# because we just DIDN'T ISSUE document about switching to winter time....
+# I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our
+# DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month.
+
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Tbilisi	2:59:16 -	LMT	1880
+			2:59:16	-	TBMT	1924 May  2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
+			3:00	-	TBIT	1957 Mar    # Tbilisi Time
+			4:00 RussiaAsia TBI%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			3:00	1:00	TBIST	1991 Apr  9 # independence
+			3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT	1992 # Georgia Time
+			3:00 E-EurAsia	GE%sT	1994 Sep lastSun
+			4:00 E-EurAsia	GE%sT	1996 Oct lastSun
+			4:00	1:00	GEST	1997 Mar lastSun
+			4:00 E-EurAsia	GE%sT	2004 Jun 27
+			3:00 RussiaAsia	GE%sT	2005 Mar lastSun 2:00
+			4:00	-	GET
+
+# East Timor
+
+# See Indonesia for the 1945 transition.
+
+# From Joao Carrascalao, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
+# <a href="http://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm">
+# East Timor may be late for its millennium
+# </a> (1999-12-26/31):
+# Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun
+# rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the
+# Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it
+# conflicts with their way of life.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
+# We don't have any record of the above attempt.
+# Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.
+
+# <a href="http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/last/00-08-16.undh.html">
+# From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
+# (2000-08-16)</a>:
+# The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
+# today to advance East Timor's time by one hour.  The time change,
+# which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
+# midnight on Saturday, September 16.
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Dili	8:22:20 -	LMT	1912
+			8:00	-	TLT	1942 Feb 21 23:00 # E Timor Time
+			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 23
+			9:00	-	TLT	1976 May  3
+			8:00	-	CIT	2000 Sep 17 00:00
+			9:00	-	TLT
+
+# India
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Kolkata	5:53:28 -	LMT	1880	# Kolkata
+			5:53:20	-	HMT	1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
+			6:30	-	BURT	1942 May 15 # Burma Time
+			5:30	-	IST	1942 Sep
+			5:30	1:00	IST	1945 Oct 15
+			5:30	-	IST
+# The following are like Asia/Kolkata:
+#	Andaman Is
+#	Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is)
+#	Nicobar Is
+
+# Indonesia
+#
+# From Gwillim Law (2001-05-28), overriding Shanks & Pottenger:
+# <http://www.sumatera-inc.com/go_to_invest/about_indonesia.asp#standtime>
+# says that Indonesia's time zones changed on 1988-01-01.  Looking at some
+# time zone maps, I think that must refer to Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat
+# and Kalimantan Tengah) switching from UTC+8 to UTC+7.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-10):
+# Here is another correction to Shanks & Pottenger.
+# JohnTWB writes that Japanese forces did not surrender control in
+# Indonesia until 1945-09-01 00:00 at the earliest (in Jakarta) and
+# other formal surrender ceremonies were September 9, 11, and 13, plus
+# September 12 for the regional surrender to Mountbatten in Singapore.
+# These would be the earliest possible times for a change.
+# Regimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Editions
+# Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched
+# from JST to UTC+07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura
+# (Hollandia).  For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura
+# switched on 1945-09-23.
+#
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Asia/Jakarta	7:07:12 -	LMT	1867 Aug 10
+# Shanks & Pottenger say the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13,
+# but this must be a typo.
+			7:07:12	-	JMT	1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Jakarta
+			7:20	-	JAVT	1932 Nov	 # Java Time
+			7:30	-	WIT	1942 Mar 23
+			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 23
+			7:30	-	WIT	1948 May
+			8:00	-	WIT	1950 May
+			7:30	-	WIT	1964
+			7:00	-	WIT
+Zone Asia/Pontianak	7:17:20	-	LMT	1908 May
+			7:17:20	-	PMT	1932 Nov    # Pontianak MT
+			7:30	-	WIT	1942 Jan 29
+			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 23
+			7:30	-	WIT	1948 May
+			8:00	-	WIT	1950 May
+			7:30	-	WIT	1964
+			8:00	-	CIT	1988 Jan  1
+			7:00	-	WIT
+Zone Asia/Makassar	7:57:36 -	LMT	1920
+			7:57:36	-	MMT	1932 Nov    # Macassar MT
+			8:00	-	CIT	1942 Feb  9
+			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 23
+			8:00	-	CIT
+Zone Asia/Jayapura	9:22:48 -	LMT	1932 Nov
+			9:00	-	EIT	1944 Sep  1
+			9:30	-	CST	1964
+			9:00	-	EIT
+
+# Iran
+
+# From Roozbeh Pournader (2003-03-15):
+# This is an English translation of what I just found (originally in Persian).
+# The Gregorian dates in brackets are mine:
+#
+#	Official Newspaper No. 13548-1370/6/25 [1991-09-16]
+#	No. 16760/T233 H				1370/6/10 [1991-09-01]
+#
+#	The Rule About Change of the Official Time of the Country
+#
+#	The Board of Ministers, in the meeting dated 1370/5/23 [1991-08-14],
+#	based on the suggestion number 2221/D dated 1370/4/22 [1991-07-13]
+#	of the Country's Organization for Official and Employment Affairs,
+#	and referring to the law for equating the working hours of workers
+#	and officers in the whole country dated 1359/4/23 [1980-07-14], and
+#	for synchronizing the official times of the country, agreed that:
+#
+#	The official time of the country will should move forward one hour
+#	at the 24[:00] hours of the first day of Farvardin and should return
+#	to its previous state at the 24[:00] hours of the 30th day of
+#	Shahrivar.
+#
+#	First Deputy to the President - Hassan Habibi
+#
+# From personal experience, that agrees with what has been followed
+# for at least the last 5 years.  Before that, for a few years, the
+# date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last
+# Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates....
+# I have also changed the abbreviations to what is considered correct
+# here in Iran, IRST for regular time and IRDT for daylight saving time.
+#
+# From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05):
+# The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions
+# that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic
+# leap year calculation involved.  There has never been any serious
+# plan to change that law....
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.
+# I used Ed Reingold's cal-persia in GNU Emacs 21.2 to check Persian dates,
+# stopping after 2037 when 32-bit time_t's overflow.
+# That cal-persia used Birashk's approximation, which disagrees with the solar
+# calendar predictions for the year 2025, so I corrected those dates by hand.
+#
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future
+# discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:
+# For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for
+# the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local
+# Iranian time that the definition of the correct location needs to be
+# known exactly, amongst other factors.  2157 is even closer:
+# 2157-03-20 08:37:15.5 UT.  But the Gregorian year 2025 should give
+# no interpretation problem whatsoever.  By the way, another instant
+# in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between
+# arithmetical and astronomical Iranian calendars will be in 2058:
+# vernal equinox on 2058-03-20 09:03:05.9 UT.  The Java version of
+# Reingold's/Dershowitz' calculator gives correctly the Gregorian date
+# 2058-03-21 for 1 Farvardin 1437 (astronomical).
+#
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-03-22):
+# Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:
+# http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm
+#
+# From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Norgaard Welen:
+# ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce
+# daylight saving time ...
+# http://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
+#
+# From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05):
+# This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of
+# Iran, Volume 63, Number 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24
+# [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:...
+# The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour
+# on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will
+# be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the
+# thirtieth day of Shahrivar.
+#
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Iran	1978	1980	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	1978	only	-	Oct	21	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	1979	only	-	Sep	19	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	1980	only	-	Sep	23	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	1991	only	-	May	 3	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	1992	1995	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	1991	1995	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	1996	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	1996	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	1997	1999	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	1997	1999	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2000	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2000	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2001	2003	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2001	2003	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2004	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2004	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2005	only	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2005	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2008	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2008	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2009	2011	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2009	2011	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2012	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2012	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2013	2015	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2013	2015	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2016	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2016	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2017	2019	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2017	2019	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2020	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2020	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2021	2023	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2021	2023	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2024	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2024	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2025	2027	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2025	2027	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2028	2029	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2028	2029	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2030	2031	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2030	2031	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2032	2033	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2032	2033	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2034	2035	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2034	2035	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iran	2036	2037	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iran	2036	2037	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	S
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Tehran	3:25:44	-	LMT	1916
+			3:25:44	-	TMT	1946	# Tehran Mean Time
+			3:30	-	IRST	1977 Nov
+			4:00	Iran	IR%sT	1979
+			3:30	Iran	IR%sT
+
+
+# Iraq
+#
+# From Jonathan Lennox (2000-06-12):
+# An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in
+# the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:
+# "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and
+# are an hour ahead of Baghdad."
+#
+# But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows:
+# In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi
+# Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time.  They referred
+# to daylight saving as Saddam time.  But, as of today, the time zone
+# in Iraqi-Kurdistan is on standard time with Baghdad, Iraq.
+#
+# So we'll ignore the Economist's claim.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-10):
+# The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following
+# news sources (in Arabic):
+# <a href="http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html">
+# http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html
+# </a>
+# <a href="http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10">
+# http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10
+# </a>
+#
+# We have published a short article in English about the change:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html
+# </a>
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Iraq	1982	only	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iraq	1982	1984	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Iraq	1983	only	-	Mar	31	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iraq	1984	1985	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Iraq	1985	1990	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	S
+Rule	Iraq	1986	1990	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00s	1:00	D
+# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the `:01' is a typo.
+# Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.
+#
+Rule	Iraq	1991	2007	-	Apr	 1	3:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	Iraq	1991	2007	-	Oct	 1	3:00s	0	S
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Baghdad	2:57:40	-	LMT	1890
+			2:57:36	-	BMT	1918	    # Baghdad Mean Time?
+			3:00	-	AST	1982 May
+			3:00	Iraq	A%sT
+
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# Israel
+
+# From Ephraim Silverberg (2001-01-11):
+#
+# I coined "IST/IDT" circa 1988.  Until then there were three
+# different abbreviations in use:
+#
+# JST  Jerusalem Standard Time [Danny Braniss, Hebrew University]
+# IZT  Israel Zonal (sic) Time [Prof. Haim Papo, Technion]
+# EEST Eastern Europe Standard Time [used by almost everyone else]
+#
+# Since timezones should be called by country and not capital cities,
+# I ruled out JST.  As Israel is in Asia Minor and not Eastern Europe,
+# EEST was equally unacceptable.  Since "zonal" was not compatible with
+# any other timezone abbreviation, I felt that 'IST' was the way to go
+# and, indeed, it has received almost universal acceptance in timezone
+# settings in Israeli computers.
+#
+# In any case, I am happy to share timezone abbreviations with India,
+# high on my favorite-country list (and not only because my wife's
+# family is from India).
+
+# From Shanks & Pottenger:
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Zion	1940	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1942	1944	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1943	only	-	Apr	 1	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1944	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1945	only	-	Apr	16	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1945	only	-	Nov	 1	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1946	only	-	Apr	16	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1946	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1948	only	-	May	23	0:00	2:00	DD
+Rule	Zion	1948	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1948	1949	-	Nov	 1	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1949	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1950	only	-	Apr	16	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1950	only	-	Sep	15	3:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1951	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1951	only	-	Nov	11	3:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1952	only	-	Apr	20	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1952	only	-	Oct	19	3:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1953	only	-	Apr	12	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1953	only	-	Sep	13	3:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1954	only	-	Jun	13	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1954	only	-	Sep	12	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1955	only	-	Jun	11	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1955	only	-	Sep	11	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1956	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1956	only	-	Sep	30	3:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1957	only	-	Apr	29	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1957	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1974	only	-	Jul	 7	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1974	only	-	Oct	13	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1975	only	-	Apr	20	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1975	only	-	Aug	31	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1985	only	-	Apr	14	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1985	only	-	Sep	15	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1986	only	-	May	18	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1986	only	-	Sep	 7	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1987	only	-	Apr	15	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1987	only	-	Sep	13	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1988	only	-	Apr	 9	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1988	only	-	Sep	 3	0:00	0	S
+
+# From Ephraim Silverberg
+# (1997-03-04, 1998-03-16, 1998-12-28, 2000-01-17, 2000-07-25, 2004-12-22,
+# and 2005-02-17):
+
+# According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of
+# Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes.
+# One thing is entrenched in law, however: that there must be at least 150
+# days of daylight savings time annually.  From 1993-1998, the change to
+# daylight savings time was on a Friday morning from midnight IST to
+# 1 a.m IDT; up until 1998, the change back to standard time was on a
+# Saturday night from midnight daylight savings time to 11 p.m. standard
+# time.  1996 is an exception to this rule where the change back to standard
+# time took place on Sunday night instead of Saturday night to avoid
+# conflicts with the Jewish New Year.  In 1999, the change to
+# daylight savings time was still on a Friday morning but from
+# 2 a.m. IST to 3 a.m. IDT; furthermore, the change back to standard time
+# was also on a Friday morning from 2 a.m. IDT to 1 a.m. IST for
+# 1999 only.  In the year 2000, the change to daylight savings time was
+# similar to 1999, but although the change back will be on a Friday, it
+# will take place from 1 a.m. IDT to midnight IST.  Starting in 2001, all
+# changes to/from will take place at 1 a.m. old time, but now there is no
+# rule as to what day of the week it will take place in as the start date
+# (except in 2003) is the night after the Passover Seder (i.e. the eve
+# of the 16th of Nisan in the lunar Hebrew calendar) and the end date
+# (except in 2002) is three nights before Yom Kippur [Day of Atonement]
+# (the eve of the 7th of Tishrei in the lunar Hebrew calendar).
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Zion	1989	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1989	only	-	Sep	 3	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1990	only	-	Mar	25	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1990	only	-	Aug	26	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1991	only	-	Mar	24	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1991	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1992	only	-	Mar	29	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1992	only	-	Sep	 6	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1993	only	-	Apr	 2	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1993	only	-	Sep	 5	0:00	0	S
+
+# The dates for 1994-1995 were obtained from Office of the Spokeswoman for the
+# Ministry of Interior, Jerusalem, Israel.  The spokeswoman can be reached by
+# calling the office directly at 972-2-6701447 or 972-2-6701448.
+
+# Rule	NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
+Rule	Zion	1994	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1994	only	-	Aug	28	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1995	only	-	Mar	31	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1995	only	-	Sep	 3	0:00	0	S
+
+# The dates for 1996 were determined by the Minister of Interior of the
+# time, Haim Ramon.  The official announcement regarding 1996-1998
+# (with the dates for 1997-1998 no longer being relevant) can be viewed at:
+#
+#   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/1996-1998.ramon.ps.gz
+#
+# The dates for 1997-1998 were altered by his successor, Rabbi Eli Suissa.
+#
+# The official announcements for the years 1997-1999 can be viewed at:
+#
+#   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/YYYY.ps.gz
+#
+#       where YYYY is the relevant year.
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Zion	1996	only	-	Mar	15	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1996	only	-	Sep	16	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1997	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1997	only	-	Sep	14	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1998	only	-	Mar	20	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1998	only	-	Sep	 6	0:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	1999	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	1999	only	-	Sep	 3	2:00	0	S
+
+# The Knesset Interior Committee has changed the dates for 2000 for
+# the third time in just over a year and have set new dates for the
+# years 2001-2004 as well.
+#
+# The official announcement for the start date of 2000 can be viewed at:
+#
+#	ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-start.ps.gz
+#
+# The official announcement for the end date of 2000 and the dates
+# for the years 2001-2004 can be viewed at:
+#
+#	ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-2004.ps.gz
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Zion	2000	only	-	Apr	14	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	2000	only	-	Oct	 6	1:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2001	only	-	Apr	 9	1:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	2001	only	-	Sep	24	1:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2002	only	-	Mar	29	1:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	2002	only	-	Oct	 7	1:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2003	only	-	Mar	28	1:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	2003	only	-	Oct	 3	1:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2004	only	-	Apr	 7	1:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	2004	only	-	Sep	22	1:00	0	S
+
+# The proposed law agreed upon by the Knesset Interior Committee on
+# 2005-02-14 is that, for 2005 and beyond, DST starts at 02:00 the
+# last Friday before April 2nd (i.e. the last Friday in March or April
+# 1st itself if it falls on a Friday) and ends at 02:00 on the Saturday
+# night _before_ the fast of Yom Kippur.
+#
+# Those who can read Hebrew can view the announcement at:
+#
+#	ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2005+beyond.ps
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2005-02-22):
+# I used Ephraim Silverberg's dst-israel.el program
+# <ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/software/dst-israel.el> (2005-02-20)
+# along with Ed Reingold's cal-hebrew in GNU Emacs 21.4,
+# to generate the transitions in this list.
+# (I replaced "lastFri" with "Fri>=26" by hand.)
+# The spring transitions below all correspond to the following Rule:
+#
+# Rule	Zion	2005	max	-	Mar	Fri>=26	2:00	1:00	D
+#
+# but older zic implementations (e.g., Solaris 8) do not support
+# "Fri>=26" to mean April 1 in years like 2005, so for now we list the
+# springtime transitions explicitly.
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Zion	2005	only	-	Apr	 1	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	2005	only	-	Oct	 9	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2006	2010	-	Mar	Fri>=26	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	2006	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2007	only	-	Sep	16	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2008	only	-	Oct	 5	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2009	only	-	Sep	27	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2010	only	-	Sep	12	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2011	only	-	Apr	 1	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	2011	only	-	Oct	 2	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2012	2015	-	Mar	Fri>=26	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	2012	only	-	Sep	23	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2013	only	-	Sep	 8	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2014	only	-	Sep	28	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2015	only	-	Sep	20	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2016	only	-	Apr	 1	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	2016	only	-	Oct	 9	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2017	2021	-	Mar	Fri>=26	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	2017	only	-	Sep	24	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2018	only	-	Sep	16	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2019	only	-	Oct	 6	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2020	only	-	Sep	27	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2021	only	-	Sep	12	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2022	only	-	Apr	 1	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	2022	only	-	Oct	 2	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2023	2032	-	Mar	Fri>=26	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	2023	only	-	Sep	24	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2024	only	-	Oct	 6	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2025	only	-	Sep	28	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2026	only	-	Sep	20	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2027	only	-	Oct	10	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2028	only	-	Sep	24	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2029	only	-	Sep	16	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2030	only	-	Oct	 6	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2031	only	-	Sep	21	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2032	only	-	Sep	12	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2033	only	-	Apr	 1	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	2033	only	-	Oct	 2	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2034	2037	-	Mar	Fri>=26	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Zion	2034	only	-	Sep	17	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2035	only	-	Oct	 7	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2036	only	-	Sep	28	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Zion	2037	only	-	Sep	13	2:00	0	S
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Jerusalem	2:20:56 -	LMT	1880
+			2:20:40	-	JMT	1918	# Jerusalem Mean Time?
+			2:00	Zion	I%sT
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# Japan
+
+# `9:00' and `JST' is from Guy Harris.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06):
+# Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had
+# daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but ``the system was discontinued
+# because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours.''
+
+# From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times
+# <http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm>:
+# Occupation authorities imposed daylight-saving time on Japan on
+# [1948-05-01]....  But lack of prior debate and the execution of
+# daylight-saving time just three days after the bill was passed generated
+# deep hatred of the concept....  The Diet unceremoniously passed a bill to
+# dump the unpopular system in October 1951, less than a month after the San
+# Francisco Peace Treaty was signed.  (A government poll in 1951 showed 53%
+# of the Japanese wanted to scrap daylight-saving time, as opposed to 30% who
+# wanted to keep it.)
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# Shanks & Pottenger write that DST in Japan during those years was as follows:
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Japan	1948	only	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Japan	1948	1951	-	Sep	Sat>=8	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Japan	1949	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Japan	1950	1951	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
+# but the only locations using it (for birth certificates, presumably, since
+# their audience is astrologers) were US military bases.  For now, assume
+# that for most purposes daylight-saving time was observed; otherwise, what
+# would have been the point of the 1951 poll?
+
+# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):
+# 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical
+# Observatory: E 139 44' 40".90 (9h 18m 58s.727), N 35 39' 16".0.
+# This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'
+# edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....
+# JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).
+# The law is enacted on 1886-07-07.
+
+# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):
+# The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan,
+# which stands for the time on E 135 degree.
+# In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central
+# standard time".  And the same ordinance also established "western standard
+# time", which stands for the time on E 120 degree....  But "western standard
+# time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937).  In the ordinance No.
+# 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
+# standard....
+#
+# I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
+# In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.
+
+# Shanks & Pottenger claim JST in use since 1896, and that a few
+# places (e.g. Ishigaki) use +0800; go with Suzuki.  Guess that all
+# ordinances took effect on Jan 1.
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Tokyo	9:18:59	-	LMT	1887 Dec 31 15:00u
+			9:00	-	JST	1896
+			9:00	-	CJT	1938
+			9:00	Japan	J%sT
+# Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo.
+
+# Jordan
+#
+# From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html">
+# Jordan Week (1999-07-01) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
+# Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
+# in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
+# all year round.
+#
+# From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html">
+# Jordan Week (1999-09-30) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
+# Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
+# by one hour.  This is the latest government decision and it's final!
+# The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
+# government's departments from six to seven hours.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
+# Starting 2003 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
+#
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
+# For Jordan I have received multiple independent user reports every year
+# about DST end dates, as the end-rule is different every year.
+#
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-10-01), after a heads-up from Hilal Malawi:
+# http://www.petranews.gov.jo/nepras/2006/Sep/05/4000.htm
+# "Jordan will switch to winter time on Friday, October 27".
+#
+
+# From Phil Pizzey (2009-04-02):
+# ...I think I may have spotted an error in the timezone data for
+# Jordan.
+# The current (2009d) asia file shows Jordan going to daylight
+# saving
+# time on the last Thursday in March.
+#
+# Rule  Jordan      2000  max	-  Mar   lastThu     0:00s 1:00  S
+#
+# However timeanddate.com, which I usually find reliable, shows Jordan
+# going to daylight saving time on the last Friday in March since 2002.
+# Please see
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=11">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=11
+# </a>
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-02):
+# This single one might be good enough, (2009-03-24, Arabic):
+# <a href="http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279">
+# http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279
+# </a>
+#
+# Google's translation:
+#
+# > The Council of Ministers decided in 2002 to adopt the principle of timely
+# > submission of the summer at 60 minutes as of midnight on the last Thursday
+# > of the month of March of each year.
+#
+# So - this means the midnight between Thursday and Friday since 2002.
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-06):
+# We still have Jordan switching to DST on Thursdays in 2000 and 2001.
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Jordan	1973	only	-	Jun	6	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Jordan	1973	1975	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Jordan	1974	1977	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Jordan	1976	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Jordan	1977	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Jordan	1978	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Jordan	1978	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Jordan	1985	only	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Jordan	1985	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Jordan	1986	1988	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Jordan	1986	1990	-	Oct	Fri>=1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Jordan	1989	only	-	May	8	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Jordan	1990	only	-	Apr	27	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Jordan	1991	only	-	Apr	17	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Jordan	1991	only	-	Sep	27	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Jordan	1992	only	-	Apr	10	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Jordan	1992	1993	-	Oct	Fri>=1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Jordan	1993	1998	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Jordan	1994	only	-	Sep	Fri>=15	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Jordan	1995	1998	-	Sep	Fri>=15	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Jordan	1999	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Jordan	1999	2002	-	Sep	lastFri	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Jordan	2000	2001	-	Mar	lastThu	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Jordan	2002	max	-	Mar	lastThu	24:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Jordan	2003	only	-	Oct	24	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Jordan	2004	only	-	Oct	15	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Jordan	2005	only	-	Sep	lastFri	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Jordan	2006	max	-	Oct	lastFri	0:00s	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Amman	2:23:44 -	LMT	1931
+			2:00	Jordan	EE%sT
+
+
+# Kazakhstan
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
+# Andrew Evtichov (1996-04-13) writes that Kazakhstan
+# stayed in sync with Moscow after 1990, and that Aqtobe (formerly Aktyubinsk)
+# and Aqtau (formerly Shevchenko) are the largest cities in their zones.
+# Guess that Aqtau and Aqtobe diverged in 1995, since that's the first time
+# IATA SSIM mentions a third time zone in Kazakhstan.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# German Iofis, ELSI, Almaty (2001-10-09) reports that Kazakhstan uses
+# RussiaAsia rules, instead of switching at 00:00 as the IATA has it.
+# Go with Shanks & Pottenger, who have them always using RussiaAsia rules.
+# Also go with the following claims of Shanks & Pottenger:
+#
+# - Kazakhstan did not observe DST in 1991.
+# - Qyzylorda switched from +5:00 to +6:00 on 1992-01-19 02:00.
+# - Oral switched from +5:00 to +4:00 in spring 1989.
+
+# <a href="http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm">
+# From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin #11 (2005-03-21):
+# </a>
+# The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing
+# daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health
+# complications coupled with a decrease in productivity.
+#
+# From Branislav Kojic (in Astana) via Gwillim Law (2005-06-28):
+# ... what happened was that the former Kazakhstan Eastern time zone
+# was "blended" with the Central zone.  Therefore, Kazakhstan now has
+# two time zones, and difference between them is one hour.  The zone
+# closer to UTC is the former Western zone (probably still called the
+# same), encompassing four provinces in the west: Aqtobe, Atyrau,
+# Mangghystau, and West Kazakhstan.  The other zone encompasses
+# everything else....  I guess that would make Kazakhstan time zones
+# de jure UTC+5 and UTC+6 respectively.
+
+#
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+#
+# Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan
+Zone	Asia/Almaty	5:07:48 -	LMT	1924 May  2 # or Alma-Ata
+			5:00	-	ALMT	1930 Jun 21 # Alma-Ata Time
+			6:00 RussiaAsia ALM%sT	1991
+			6:00	-	ALMT	1992
+			6:00 RussiaAsia	ALM%sT	2005 Mar 15
+			6:00	-	ALMT
+# Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.)
+Zone	Asia/Qyzylorda	4:21:52 -	LMT	1924 May  2
+			4:00	-	KIZT	1930 Jun 21 # Kizilorda Time
+			5:00	-	KIZT	1981 Apr  1
+			5:00	1:00	KIZST	1981 Oct  1
+			6:00	-	KIZT	1982 Apr  1
+			5:00 RussiaAsia	KIZ%sT	1991
+			5:00	-	KIZT	1991 Dec 16 # independence
+			5:00	-	QYZT	1992 Jan 19 2:00
+			6:00 RussiaAsia	QYZ%sT	2005 Mar 15
+			6:00	-	QYZT
+# Aqtobe (aka Aktobe, formerly Akt'ubinsk)
+Zone	Asia/Aqtobe	3:48:40	-	LMT	1924 May  2
+			4:00	-	AKTT	1930 Jun 21 # Aktyubinsk Time
+			5:00	-	AKTT	1981 Apr  1
+			5:00	1:00	AKTST	1981 Oct  1
+			6:00	-	AKTT	1982 Apr  1
+			5:00 RussiaAsia	AKT%sT	1991
+			5:00	-	AKTT	1991 Dec 16 # independence
+			5:00 RussiaAsia	AQT%sT	2005 Mar 15 # Aqtobe Time
+			5:00	-	AQTT
+# Mangghystau
+# Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region,
+# so include time stamps before 1963.
+Zone	Asia/Aqtau	3:21:04	-	LMT	1924 May  2
+			4:00	-	FORT	1930 Jun 21 # Fort Shevchenko T
+			5:00	-	FORT	1963
+			5:00	-	SHET	1981 Oct  1 # Shevchenko Time
+			6:00	-	SHET	1982 Apr  1
+			5:00 RussiaAsia	SHE%sT	1991
+			5:00	-	SHET	1991 Dec 16 # independence
+			5:00 RussiaAsia	AQT%sT	1995 Mar lastSun 2:00 # Aqtau Time
+			4:00 RussiaAsia	AQT%sT	2005 Mar 15
+			5:00	-	AQTT
+# West Kazakhstan
+Zone	Asia/Oral	3:25:24	-	LMT	1924 May  2 # or Ural'sk
+			4:00	-	URAT	1930 Jun 21 # Ural'sk time
+			5:00	-	URAT	1981 Apr  1
+			5:00	1:00	URAST	1981 Oct  1
+			6:00	-	URAT	1982 Apr  1
+			5:00 RussiaAsia	URA%sT	1989 Mar 26 2:00
+			4:00 RussiaAsia	URA%sT	1991
+			4:00	-	URAT	1991 Dec 16 # independence
+			4:00 RussiaAsia	ORA%sT	2005 Mar 15 # Oral Time
+			5:00	-	ORAT
+
+# Kyrgyzstan (Kirgizstan)
+# Transitions through 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-15):
+# According to an article dated today in the Kyrgyzstan Development Gateway
+# <http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml>
+# Kyrgyzstan is canceling the daylight saving time system.  I take the article
+# to mean that they will leave their clocks at 6 hours ahead of UTC.
+# From Malik Abdugaliev (2005-09-21):
+# Our government cancels daylight saving time 6th of August 2005.
+# From 2005-08-12 our GMT-offset is +6, w/o any daylight saving.
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Kyrgyz	1992	1996	-	Apr	Sun>=7	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Kyrgyz	1992	1996	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Kyrgyz	1997	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:30	1:00	S
+Rule	Kyrgyz	1997	2004	-	Oct	lastSun	2:30	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Bishkek	4:58:24 -	LMT	1924 May  2
+			5:00	-	FRUT	1930 Jun 21 # Frunze Time
+			6:00 RussiaAsia FRU%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			5:00	1:00	FRUST	1991 Aug 31 2:00 # independence
+			5:00	Kyrgyz	KG%sT	2005 Aug 12    # Kyrgyzstan Time
+			6:00	-	KGT
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# Korea (North and South)
+
+# From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10) in
+# <http://www.koreaherald.co.kr/SITE/data/html_dir/2006/07/10/200607100012.asp>:
+# The Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy has already
+# commissioned a research project [to reintroduce DST] and has said
+# the system may begin as early as 2008....  Korea ran a daylight
+# saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it during the 1950-53 Korean War.
+
+# From Shanks & Pottenger:
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	ROK	1960	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	ROK	1960	only	-	Sep	13	0:00	0	S
+Rule	ROK	1987	1988	-	May	Sun>=8	0:00	1:00	D
+Rule	ROK	1987	1988	-	Oct	Sun>=8	0:00	0	S
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Seoul	8:27:52	-	LMT	1890
+			8:30	-	KST	1904 Dec
+			9:00	-	KST	1928
+			8:30	-	KST	1932
+			9:00	-	KST	1954 Mar 21
+			8:00	ROK	K%sT	1961 Aug 10
+			8:30	-	KST	1968 Oct
+			9:00	ROK	K%sT
+Zone	Asia/Pyongyang	8:23:00 -	LMT	1890
+			8:30	-	KST	1904 Dec
+			9:00	-	KST	1928
+			8:30	-	KST	1932
+			9:00	-	KST	1954 Mar 21
+			8:00	-	KST	1961 Aug 10
+			9:00	-	KST
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# Kuwait
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+# From the Arab Times (2007-03-14):
+# The Civil Service Commission (CSC) has approved a proposal forwarded
+# by MP Ahmad Baqer on implementing the daylight saving time (DST) in
+# Kuwait starting from April until the end of Sept this year, reports Al-Anba.
+# <http://www.arabtimesonline.com/arabtimes/kuwait/Viewdet.asp?ID=9950>.
+# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29):
+# We don't know the details, or whether the approval means it'll happen,
+# so for now we assume no DST.
+Zone	Asia/Kuwait	3:11:56 -	LMT	1950
+			3:00	-	AST
+
+# Laos
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Vientiane	6:50:24 -	LMT	1906 Jun  9 # or Viangchan
+			7:06:20	-	SMT	1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT?
+			7:00	-	ICT	1912 May
+			8:00	-	ICT	1931 May
+			7:00	-	ICT
+
+# Lebanon
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Lebanon	1920	only	-	Mar	28	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lebanon	1920	only	-	Oct	25	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Lebanon	1921	only	-	Apr	3	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lebanon	1921	only	-	Oct	3	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Lebanon	1922	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lebanon	1922	only	-	Oct	8	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Lebanon	1923	only	-	Apr	22	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lebanon	1923	only	-	Sep	16	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Lebanon	1957	1961	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lebanon	1957	1961	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Lebanon	1972	only	-	Jun	22	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lebanon	1972	1977	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Lebanon	1973	1977	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lebanon	1978	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lebanon	1978	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Lebanon	1984	1987	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lebanon	1984	1991	-	Oct	16	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Lebanon	1988	only	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lebanon	1989	only	-	May	10	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lebanon	1990	1992	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lebanon	1992	only	-	Oct	4	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Lebanon	1993	max	-	Mar	lastSun	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lebanon	1993	1998	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Lebanon	1999	max	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Beirut	2:22:00 -	LMT	1880
+			2:00	Lebanon	EE%sT
+
+# Malaysia
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	NBorneo	1935	1941	-	Sep	14	0:00	0:20	TS # one-Third Summer
+Rule	NBorneo	1935	1941	-	Dec	14	0:00	0	-
+#
+# peninsular Malaysia
+# The data here are taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
+# <http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html>.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur	6:46:46 -	LMT	1901 Jan  1
+			6:55:25	-	SMT	1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
+			7:00	-	MALT	1933 Jan  1 # Malaya Time
+			7:00	0:20	MALST	1936 Jan  1
+			7:20	-	MALT	1941 Sep  1
+			7:30	-	MALT	1942 Feb 16
+			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 12
+			7:30	-	MALT	1982 Jan  1
+			8:00	-	MYT	# Malaysia Time
+# Sabah & Sarawak
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# The data here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945 and 1982
+# transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Asia/Kuching	7:21:20	-	LMT	1926 Mar
+			7:30	-	BORT	1933	# Borneo Time
+			8:00	NBorneo	BOR%sT	1942 Feb 16
+			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 12
+			8:00	-	BORT	1982 Jan  1
+			8:00	-	MYT
+
+# Maldives
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Indian/Maldives	4:54:00 -	LMT	1880	# Male
+			4:54:00	-	MMT	1960	# Male Mean Time
+			5:00	-	MVT		# Maldives Time
+
+# Mongolia
+
+# Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but
+# usno1995 and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World (2005-03)
+# both say that it has just one.
+
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11):
+# <a href="http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm">
+# General Information Mongolia
+# </a> (1999-09)
+# "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of
+# Bayan-Ulgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
+# the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus
+# eight hours."
+
+# From Rives McDow (1999-12-13):
+# Mongolia discontinued the use of daylight savings time in 1999; 1998
+# being the last year it was implemented.  The dates of implementation I am
+# unsure of, but most probably it was similar to Russia, except for the time
+# of implementation may have been different....
+# Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time
+# zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod,
+# Suhbaatar, and possibly Khentij.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15):
+# Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia.
+# We'll use Hovd (also spelled Chovd and Khovd) to represent the west zone;
+# the capital of the Hovd province is sometimes called Hovd, sometimes Dund-Us,
+# and sometimes Jirgalanta (with variant spellings), but the name Hovd
+# is good enough for our purposes.
+
+# From Rives McDow (2001-05-13):
+# In addition to Mongolia starting daylight savings as reported earlier
+# (adopted DST on 2001-04-27 02:00 local time, ending 2001-09-28),
+# there are three time zones.
+#
+# Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-ulgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai
+# Provinces [at 8:00]: Khovsgol, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Tov,
+#	Bayankhongor, Ovorkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Omnogovi
+# Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sukhbaatar
+#
+# [The province of Selenge is omitted from the above lists.]
+
+# From Ganbold Ts., Ulaanbaatar (2004-04-17):
+# Daylight saving occurs at 02:00 local time last Saturday of March.
+# It will change back to normal at 02:00 local time last Saturday of
+# September.... As I remember this rule was changed in 2001.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2004-04-17):
+# For now, assume Rives McDow's informant got confused about Friday vs
+# Saturday, and that his 2001 dates should have 1 added to them.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2005-07-26):
+# We have wildly conflicting information about Mongolia's time zones.
+# Bill Bonnet (2005-05-19) reports that the US Embassy in Ulaanbaatar says
+# there is only one time zone and that DST is observed, citing Microsoft
+# Windows XP as the source.  Risto Nykanen (2005-05-16) reports that
+# travelmongolia.org says there are two time zones (UTC+7, UTC+8) with no DST.
+# Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-20) reports that the Mongolian Embassy in
+# Washington, DC says there are two time zones, with DST observed.
+# He also found
+# <http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/index.php?subaction=showcomments&id=1111634894&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1&>
+# which also says that there is DST, and which has a comment by "Toddius"
+# (2005-03-31 06:05 +0700) saying "Mongolia actually has 3.5 time zones.
+# The West (OLGII) is +7 GMT, most of the country is ULAT is +8 GMT
+# and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sukhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT.
+# The SUKH timezone is new this year, it is one of the few things the
+# parliament passed during the tumultuous winter session."
+# For now, let's ignore this information, until we have more confirmation.
+
+# From Ganbold Ts. (2007-02-26):
+# Parliament of Mongolia has just changed the daylight-saving rule in February.
+# They decided not to adopt daylight-saving time....
+# http://www.mongolnews.mn/index.php?module=unuudur&sec=view&id=15742
+
+# From Deborah Goldsmith (2008-03-30):
+# We received a bug report claiming that the tz database UTC offset for
+# Asia/Choibalsan (GMT+09:00) is incorrect, and that it should be GMT
+# +08:00 instead. Different sources appear to disagree with the tz
+# database on this, e.g.:
+#
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026
+# </a>
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx">
+# http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx
+# </a>
+#
+# both say GMT+08:00.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-31):
+# eznis airways, which operates several domestic flights, has a flight
+# schedule here:
+# <a href="http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112">
+# http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112
+# </a>
+# (click the English flag for English)
+#
+# There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbatar arrive
+# about 1:35 - 1:50 hours later in local clock time, no matter the
+# direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khvod takes 2 hours in the Eastern
+# direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbatar and Khvod are
+# in different time zones (like we know about), while Choibalsan and
+# Ulaanbatar are in the same time zone (correction needed).
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
+# Assume that Choibalsan is indeed offset by 8:00.
+# XXX--in the absence of better information, assume that transition
+# was at the start of 2008-03-31 (the day of Steffen Thorsen's report);
+# this is almost surely wrong.
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Mongol	1983	1984	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Mongol	1983	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
+# Shanks & Pottenger and IATA SSIM say 1990s switches occurred at 00:00,
+# but McDow says the 2001 switches occurred at 02:00.  Also, IATA SSIM
+# (1996-09) says 1996-10-25.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger through 1998.
+#
+# Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches
+# in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sukhbaatar) took place
+# at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of
+# the country.  That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their
+# correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly
+# in the latest edition; so ignore it for now.
+
+Rule	Mongol	1985	1998	-	Mar	lastSun	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Mongol	1984	1998	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
+# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says Mongolia no longer observes DST.
+Rule	Mongol	2001	only	-	Apr	lastSat	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Mongol	2001	2006	-	Sep	lastSat	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Mongol	2002	2006	-	Mar	lastSat	2:00	1:00	S
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+# Hovd, a.k.a. Chovd, Dund-Us, Dzhargalant, Khovd, Jirgalanta
+Zone	Asia/Hovd	6:06:36 -	LMT	1905 Aug
+			6:00	-	HOVT	1978	# Hovd Time
+			7:00	Mongol	HOV%sT
+# Ulaanbaatar, a.k.a. Ulan Bataar, Ulan Bator, Urga
+Zone	Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 -	LMT	1905 Aug
+			7:00	-	ULAT	1978	# Ulaanbaatar Time
+			8:00	Mongol	ULA%sT
+# Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tuemen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan,
+# Choybalsan, Sanbejse, Tchoibalsan
+Zone	Asia/Choibalsan	7:38:00 -	LMT	1905 Aug
+			7:00	-	ULAT	1978
+			8:00	-	ULAT	1983 Apr
+			9:00	Mongol	CHO%sT	2008 Mar 31 # Choibalsan Time
+			8:00	Mongol	CHO%sT
+
+# Nepal
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Kathmandu	5:41:16 -	LMT	1920
+			5:30	-	IST	1986
+			5:45	-	NPT	# Nepal Time
+
+# Oman
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Muscat	3:54:20 -	LMT	1920
+			4:00	-	GST
+
+# Pakistan
+
+# From Rives McDow (2002-03-13):
+# I have been advised that Pakistan has decided to adopt dst on a
+# TRIAL basis for one year, starting 00:01 local time on April 7, 2002
+# and ending at 00:01 local time October 6, 2002.  This is what I was
+# told, but I believe that the actual time of change may be 00:00; the
+# 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15):
+# Jesper Norgaard found this URL:
+# http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm
+# (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to
+# advance the clocks by one hour on the night between the first
+# Saturday and Sunday of April and revert to the original position on
+# 15th October each year".  This agrees with McDow's 04-07 at 00:00,
+# but disagrees about the October transition, and makes it sound like
+# it's not on a trial basis.  Also, the "between the first Saturday
+# and Sunday of April" phrase, if taken literally, means that the
+# transition takes place at 00:00 on the first Sunday on or after 04-02.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09):
+# DAWN <http://www.dawn.com/2002/10/06/top13.htm> reported on 2002-10-05
+# that 2002 DST ended that day at midnight.  Go with McDow for now.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2003-03-14):
+# According to http://www.dawn.com/2003/03/07/top15.htm
+# there will be no DST in Pakistan this year:
+#
+# ISLAMABAD, March 6: Information and Media Development Minister Sheikh
+# Rashid Ahmed on Thursday said the cabinet had reversed a previous
+# decision to advance clocks by one hour in summer and put them back by
+# one hour in winter with the aim of saving light hours and energy.
+#
+# The minister told a news conference that the experiment had rather
+# shown 8 per cent higher consumption of electricity.
+
+# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-15):
+# 
+# Here is an article that Pakistan plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time 
+# on June 1, 2008 for 3 months.
+# 
+# "... The federal cabinet on Wednesday announced a new conservation plan to help 
+# reduce load shedding by approving the closure of commercial centres at 9pm and 
+# moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months. 
+# ...."
+# 
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html
+# </a>
+# OR
+# <a href="http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4">
+# http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4
+# </a>
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
+# XXX--midnight transitions is a guess; 2008 only is a guess.
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
+# Pakistan government has decided to keep the watches one-hour advanced
+# for another 2 months--plan to return to Standard Time on October 31
+# instead of August 31.
+#
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html
+# </a>
+# OR
+# <a href="http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html">
+# http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-04-08):
+# Based on previous media reports that "... proposed plan to
+# advance clocks by one hour from May 1 will cause disturbance
+# to the working schedules rather than bringing discipline in
+# official working."
+# <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280">
+# http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280
+# </a>
+#
+# recent news that instead of May 2009 - Pakistan plan to
+# introduce DST from April 15, 2009
+#
+# FYI: Associated Press Of Pakistan
+# April 08, 2009
+# Cabinet okays proposal to advance clocks by one hour from April 15
+# <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1">
+# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1
+# </a>
+#
+# or
+#
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html
+# </a>
+#
+# ....
+# The Federal Cabinet on Wednesday approved the proposal to
+# advance clocks in the country by one hour from April 15 to
+# conserve energy"
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-17):
+# "The News International," Pakistan reports that: "The Federal
+# Government has decided to restore the previous time by moving the
+# clocks backward by one hour from October 1. A formal announcement to
+# this effect will be made after the Prime Minister grants approval in
+# this regard." 
+# <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168">
+# http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168
+# </a>
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-28):
+# According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
+# Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from October
+# 1, 2009.
+#
+# "Clocks to go back one hour from 1 Oct"
+# <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2">
+# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2
+# </a>
+# or
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm
+# </a>
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-29):
+# Alexander Krivenyshev wrote:
+# > According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
+# > Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from October
+# > 1, 2009.
+#
+# Now they seem to have changed their mind, November 1 is the new date:
+# <a href="http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742">
+# http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742
+# </a>
+# "The country's clocks will be reversed by one hour on November 1.
+# Officials of Federal Ministry for Interior told this to Geo News on
+# Monday."
+#
+# And more importantly, it seems that these dates will be kept every year:
+# "It has now been decided that clocks will be wound forward by one hour
+# on April 15 and reversed by an hour on November 1 every year without
+# obtaining prior approval, the officials added."
+#
+# We have confirmed this year's end date with both with the Ministry of
+# Water and Power and the Pakistan Electric Power Company:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Christoph Goehre (2009-10-01):
+# [T]he German Consulate General in Karachi reported me today that Pakistan
+# will go back to standard time on 1st of November.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-26):
+# Steffen Thorsen wrote:
+# > On Thursday (2010-03-25) it was announced that DST would start in
+# > Pakistan on 2010-04-01.
+# >
+# > Then today, the president said that they might have to revert the
+# > decision if it is not supported by the parliament. So at the time
+# > being, it seems unclear if DST will be actually observed or not - but
+# > April 1 could be a more likely date than April 15.
+# Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final:
+#
+# "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks"
+# <a href="http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041">
+# http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041
+# </a>
+#
+# "People laud PM's announcement to end DST"
+# <a href="http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2">
+# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2
+# </a>
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule Pakistan	2002	only	-	Apr	Sun>=2	0:01	1:00	S
+Rule Pakistan	2002	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	0:01	0	-
+Rule Pakistan	2008	only	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule Pakistan	2008	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	-
+Rule Pakistan	2009	only	-	Apr	15	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule Pakistan	2009	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	-
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Karachi	4:28:12 -	LMT	1907
+			5:30	-	IST	1942 Sep
+			5:30	1:00	IST	1945 Oct 15
+			5:30	-	IST	1951 Sep 30
+			5:00	-	KART	1971 Mar 26 # Karachi Time
+			5:00 Pakistan	PK%sT	# Pakistan Time
+
+# Palestine
+
+# From Amos Shapir (1998-02-15):
+#
+# From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now
+# known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule.
+# Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too...
+#
+# The Gaza Strip was under Egyptian rule between 1948-05-15 until 1967-06-05
+# (except a short occupation by Israel from 1956-11 till 1957-03, but no
+# time zone was affected then).  It was never formally annexed to Egypt,
+# though.
+#
+# The rest of Palestine was under Jordanian rule at that time, formally
+# annexed in 1950 as the West Bank (and the word "Trans" was dropped from
+# the country's previous name of "the Hashemite Kingdom of the
+# Trans-Jordan").  So the rules for Jordan for that time apply.  Major
+# towns in that area are Nablus (Shchem), El-Halil (Hebron), Ramallah, and
+# East Jerusalem.
+#
+# Both areas were occupied by Israel in June 1967, but not annexed (except
+# for East Jerusalem).  They were on Israel time since then; there might
+# have been a Military Governor's order about time zones, but I'm not aware
+# of any (such orders may have been issued semi-annually whenever summer
+# time was in effect, but maybe the legal aspect of time was just neglected).
+#
+# The Palestinian Authority was established in 1993, and got hold of most
+# towns in the West Bank and Gaza by 1995.  I know that in order to
+# demonstrate...independence, they have been switching to
+# summer time and back on a different schedule than Israel's, but I don't
+# know when this was started, or what algorithm is used (most likely the
+# Jordanian one).
+#
+# To summarize, the table should probably look something like that:
+#
+# Area \ when | 1918-1947 | 1948-1967 | 1967-1995 | 1996-
+# ------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
+# Israel      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion
+# West bank   | Zion      | Jordan    | Zion      | Jordan
+# Gaza        | Zion      | Egypt     | Zion      | Jordan
+#
+# I guess more info may be available from the PA's web page (if/when they
+# have one).
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# Shanks & Pottenger write that Gaza did not observe DST until 1957, but go
+# with Shapir and assume that it observed DST from 1940 through 1947,
+# and that it used Jordanian rules starting in 1996.
+# We don't yet need a separate entry for the West Bank, since
+# the only differences between it and Gaza that we know about
+# occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
+# However, as we get more information, we may need to add entries
+# for parts of the West Bank as they transitioned from Israel's rules
+# to Palestine's rules.  If you have more info about this, please
+# send it to [email protected] for incorporation into future editions.
+
+# From IINS News Service - Israel - 1998-03-23 10:38:07 Israel time,
+# forwarded by Ephraim Silverberg:
+#
+# Despite the fact that Israel changed over to daylight savings time
+# last week, the PLO Authority (PA) has decided not to turn its clocks
+# one-hour forward at this time.  As a sign of independence from Israeli rule,
+# the PA has decided to implement DST in April.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
+# Daoud Kuttab writes in
+# <a href="http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html">
+# Holiday havoc
+# </a> (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that
+# the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15.
+# I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source).
+# For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00,
+# and that they switch at 0:00 on the 3rd Fridays of April and October.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
+# Starting 2004 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
+# A user from Gaza reported that Gaza made the change early because of
+# the Ramadan.  Next year Ramadan will be even earlier, so I think
+# there is a good chance next year's end date will be around two weeks
+# earlier--the same goes for Jordan.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
+# I was informed by a user in Bethlehem that in Bethlehem it started the
+# same day as Israel, and after checking with other users in the area, I
+# was informed that they started DST one day after Israel.  I was not
+# able to find any authoritative sources at the time, nor details if
+# Gaza changed as well, but presumed Gaza to follow the same rules as
+# the West Bank.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-26):
+# according to the Palestine News Network (2006-09-19):
+# http://english.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=596&Itemid=5
+# > The Council of Ministers announced that this year its winter schedule
+# > will begin early, as of midnight Thursday.  It is also time to turn
+# > back the clocks for winter.  Friday will begin an hour late this week.
+# I guess it is likely that next year's date will be moved as well,
+# because of the Ramadan.
+
+# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-09-18):
+# According to Steffen Thorsen's web site the Gaza Strip and the rest of the
+# Palestinian territories left DST early on 13.th. of September at 2:00.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2007-09-20):
+# My understanding is that Gaza and the West Bank disagree even over when
+# the weekend is (Thursday+Friday versus Friday+Saturday), so I'd be a bit
+# surprised if they agreed about DST.  But for now, assume they agree.
+# For lack of better information, predict that future changes will be
+# the 2nd Thursday of September at 02:00.
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
+# Here is an article, that Mideast running on different clocks at Ramadan.
+#
+# Gaza Strip (as Egypt) ended DST at midnight Thursday (Aug 28, 2008), while
+# the West Bank will end Daylight Saving Time at midnight Sunday (Aug 31, 2008).
+#
+# <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001">
+# http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001
+# </a>
+# <a href="http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087">
+# http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087
+# </a>
+# or
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-26):
+# According to the Palestine News Network (arabic.pnn.ps), Palestinian
+# government decided to start Daylight Time on Thursday night March
+# 26 and continue until the night of 27 September 2009.
+#
+# (in Arabic)
+# <a href="http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850">
+# http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850
+# </a>
+#
+# or
+# (English translation)
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-31):
+# Palestine's Council of Ministers announced that they will revert back to
+# winter time on Friday, 2009-09-04.
+#
+# One news source:
+# <a href="http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158">
+# http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158
+# </a>
+# (Palestinian press agency, Arabic),
+# Google translate: "Decided that the Palestinian government in Ramallah
+# headed by Salam Fayyad, the start of work in time for the winter of
+# 2009, starting on Friday approved the fourth delay Sept. clock sixty
+# minutes per hour as of Friday morning."
+#
+# We are not sure if Gaza will do the same, last year they had a different
+# end date, we will keep this page updated:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-02):
+# Seems that Gaza Strip will go back to Winter Time same date as West Bank.
+#
+# According to Palestinian Ministry Of Interior, West Bank and Gaza Strip plan
+# to change time back to Standard time on September 4, 2009.
+#
+# "Winter time unite the West Bank and Gaza"
+# (from Palestinian National Authority):
+# <a href="http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505
+# http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505
+# </a>
+# or
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html>
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-19):
+# According to Voice of Palestine DST will last for 191 days, from March
+# 26, 2010 till "the last Sunday before the tenth day of Tishri
+# (October), each year" (October 03, 2010?)
+#
+# <a href="http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697">
+# http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697
+# </a>
+# (in Arabic)
+# or
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-24):
+# ...Ma'an News Agency reports that Hamas cabinet has decided it will
+# start one day later, at 12:01am. Not sure if they really mean 12:01am or
+# noon though:
+#
+# <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178">
+# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178
+# </a>
+# (Ma'an News Agency)
+# "At 12:01am Friday, clocks in Israel and the West Bank will change to
+# 1:01am, while Gaza clocks will change at 12:01am Saturday morning."
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-08-11):
+# According to several sources, including
+# <a href="http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795">
+# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795
+# </a>
+# the clocks were set back one hour at 2010-08-11 00:00:00 local time in 
+# Gaza and the West Bank.
+# Some more background info:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html
+# </a>
+
+# The rules for Egypt are stolen from the `africa' file.
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule EgyptAsia	1957	only	-	May	10	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule EgyptAsia	1957	1958	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule EgyptAsia	1958	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule EgyptAsia	1959	1967	-	May	 1	1:00	1:00	S
+Rule EgyptAsia	1959	1965	-	Sep	30	3:00	0	-
+Rule EgyptAsia	1966	only	-	Oct	 1	3:00	0	-
+
+Rule Palestine	1999	2005	-	Apr	Fri>=15	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule Palestine	1999	2003	-	Oct	Fri>=15	0:00	0	-
+Rule Palestine	2004	only	-	Oct	 1	1:00	0	-
+Rule Palestine	2005	only	-	Oct	 4	2:00	0	-
+Rule Palestine	2006	2008	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule Palestine	2006	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
+Rule Palestine	2007	only	-	Sep	Thu>=8	2:00	0	-
+Rule Palestine	2008	only	-	Aug	lastFri	2:00	0	-
+Rule Palestine	2009	only	-	Mar	lastFri	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule Palestine	2010	max	-	Mar	lastSat	0:01	1:00	S
+Rule Palestine	2009	max	-	Sep	Fri>=1	2:00	0	-
+Rule Palestine	2010	only	-	Aug	11	0:00	0	-
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Gaza	2:17:52	-	LMT	1900 Oct
+			2:00	Zion	EET	1948 May 15
+			2:00 EgyptAsia	EE%sT	1967 Jun  5
+			2:00	Zion	I%sT	1996
+			2:00	Jordan	EE%sT	1999
+			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT
+
+# Paracel Is
+# no information
+
+# Philippines
+# On 1844-08-16, Narciso Claveria, governor-general of the
+# Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
+# be immediately followed by 1845-01-01.  Robert H. van Gent has a
+# transcript of the decree in <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/idl/idl.htm>.
+# The rest of the data are from Shanks & Pottenger.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25):
+# Tomorrow's Manila Standard reports that the Philippines Department of
+# Trade and Industry is considering adopting DST this June when the
+# rainy season begins.  See
+# <http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=politics02_april26_2006>.
+# For now, we'll ignore this, since it's not definite and we lack details.
+#
+# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
+# ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:
+# http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
+# [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
+# but no details]
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Phil	1936	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Phil	1937	only	-	Feb	1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Phil	1954	only	-	Apr	12	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Phil	1954	only	-	Jul	1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Phil	1978	only	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Phil	1978	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Manila	-15:56:00 -	LMT	1844 Dec 31
+			8:04:00 -	LMT	1899 May 11
+			8:00	Phil	PH%sT	1942 May
+			9:00	-	JST	1944 Nov
+			8:00	Phil	PH%sT
+
+# Qatar
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Qatar	3:26:08 -	LMT	1920	# Al Dawhah / Doha
+			4:00	-	GST	1972 Jun
+			3:00	-	AST
+
+# Saudi Arabia
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Riyadh	3:06:52 -	LMT	1950
+			3:00	-	AST
+
+# Singapore
+# The data here are taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
+# <http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html>.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Singapore	6:55:25 -	LMT	1901 Jan  1
+			6:55:25	-	SMT	1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
+			7:00	-	MALT	1933 Jan  1 # Malaya Time
+			7:00	0:20	MALST	1936 Jan  1
+			7:20	-	MALT	1941 Sep  1
+			7:30	-	MALT	1942 Feb 16
+			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 12
+			7:30	-	MALT	1965 Aug  9 # independence
+			7:30	-	SGT	1982 Jan  1 # Singapore Time
+			8:00	-	SGT
+
+# Spratly Is
+# no information
+
+# Sri Lanka
+# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
+# "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout"
+# (www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html, 1996-05-24,
+# no longer available as of 1999-08-17)
+# reported ``the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at
+# midnight Friday (1830 GMT) `in the light of the present power crisis'.''
+#
+# From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted
+# by Shamindra in
+# <a href="news:[email protected]">
+# Daily News - Hot News Section (1996-10-26)
+# </a>:
+# With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996
+# Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT.
+
+# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online
+# <http://news.sinhalaya.com/wmview.php?ArtID=11002> (2006-04-13):
+# 0030 hrs on April 15, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006 +30 minutes)
+# at present, become 2400 hours of April 14, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006).
+
+# From Peter Apps and Ranga Sirila of Reuters (2006-04-12) in:
+# <http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2006-04-12T172228Z_01_COL295762_RTRIDST_0_SCIENCE-SRILANKA-TIME-DC.XML>
+# [The Tamil Tigers] never accepted the original 1996 time change and simply
+# kept their clocks set five and a half hours ahead of Greenwich Mean
+# Time (GMT), in line with neighbor India.
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-18):
+# People who live in regions under Tamil control can use [TZ='Asia/Kolkata'],
+# as that zone has agreed with the Tamil areas since our cutoff date of 1970.
+
+# From K Sethu (2006-04-25):
+# I think the abbreviation LKT originated from the world of computers at
+# the time of or subsequent to the time zone changes by SL Government
+# twice in 1996 and probably SL Government or its standardization
+# agencies never declared an abbreviation as a national standard.
+#
+# I recollect before the recent change the government annoucemments
+# mentioning it as simply changing Sri Lanka Standard Time or Sri Lanka
+# Time and no mention was made about the abbreviation.
+#
+# If we look at Sri Lanka Department of Government's "Official News
+# Website of Sri Lanka" ... http://www.news.lk/ we can see that they
+# use SLT as abbreviation in time stamp at the beginning of each news
+# item....
+#
+# Within Sri Lanka I think LKT is well known among computer users and
+# adminsitrators.  In my opinion SLT may not be a good choice because the
+# nation's largest telcom / internet operator Sri Lanka Telcom is well
+# known by that abbreviation - simply as SLT (there IP domains are
+# slt.lk and sltnet.lk).
+#
+# But if indeed our government has adopted SLT as standard abbreviation
+# (that we have not known so far) then  it is better that it be used for
+# all computers.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25):
+# One possibility is that we wait for a bit for the dust to settle down
+# and then see what people actually say in practice.
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Colombo	5:19:24 -	LMT	1880
+			5:19:32	-	MMT	1906	# Moratuwa Mean Time
+			5:30	-	IST	1942 Jan  5
+			5:30	0:30	IHST	1942 Sep
+			5:30	1:00	IST	1945 Oct 16 2:00
+			5:30	-	IST	1996 May 25 0:00
+			6:30	-	LKT	1996 Oct 26 0:30
+			6:00	-	LKT	2006 Apr 15 0:30
+			5:30	-	IST
+
+# Syria
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Syria	1920	1923	-	Apr	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1920	1923	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Syria	1962	only	-	Apr	29	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1962	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Syria	1963	1965	-	May	1	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1963	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Syria	1964	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Syria	1965	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Syria	1966	only	-	Apr	24	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1966	1976	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Syria	1967	1978	-	May	1	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1977	1978	-	Sep	1	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Syria	1983	1984	-	Apr	9	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1983	1984	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Syria	1986	only	-	Feb	16	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1986	only	-	Oct	9	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Syria	1987	only	-	Mar	1	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1987	1988	-	Oct	31	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Syria	1988	only	-	Mar	15	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1989	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1989	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Syria	1990	only	-	Apr	1	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1990	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Syria	1991	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1991	1992	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Syria	1992	only	-	Apr	 8	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1993	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1993	only	-	Sep	25	0:00	0	-
+# IATA SSIM (1998-02) says 1998-04-02;
+# (1998-09) says 1999-03-29 and 1999-09-29; (1999-02) says 1999-04-02,
+# 2000-04-02, and 2001-04-02; (1999-09) says 2000-03-31 and 2001-03-31;
+# (2006) says 2006-03-31 and 2006-09-22;
+# for now ignore all these claims and go with Shanks & Pottenger,
+# except for the 2006-09-22 claim (which seems right for Ramadan).
+Rule	Syria	1994	1996	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1994	2005	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Syria	1997	1998	-	Mar	lastMon	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	1999	2006	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+# From Stephen Colebourne (2006-09-18):
+# According to IATA data, Syria will change DST on 21st September [21:00 UTC]
+# this year [only]....  This is probably related to Ramadan, like Egypt.
+Rule	Syria	2006	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
+# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29):
+# Today the AP reported "Syria will switch to summertime at midnight Thursday."
+# http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/03/29/africa/ME-GEN-Syria-Time-Change.php
+Rule	Syria	2007	only	-	Mar	lastFri	0:00	1:00	S
+# From Jesper Norgard (2007-10-27):
+# The sister center ICARDA of my work CIMMYT is confirming that Syria DST will
+# not take place 1.st November at 0:00 o'clock but 1.st November at 24:00 or
+# rather Midnight between Thursday and Friday. This does make more sence than
+# having it between Wednesday and Thursday (two workdays in Syria) since the
+# weekend in Syria is not Saturday and Sunday, but Friday and Saturday. So now
+# it is implemented at midnight of the last workday before weekend...
+# 
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-27):
+# Jesper Norgaard Welen wrote:
+# 
+# > "Winter local time in Syria will be observed at midnight of Thursday 1
+# > November 2007, and the clock will be put back 1 hour."
+# 
+# I found confirmation on this in this gov.sy-article (Arabic):
+# http://wehda.alwehda.gov.sy/_print_veiw.asp?FileName=12521710520070926111247
+# 
+# which using Google's translate tools says:
+# Council of Ministers also approved the commencement of work on 
+# identifying the winter time as of Friday, 2/11/2007 where the 60th 
+# minute delay at midnight Thursday 1/11/2007.
+Rule	Syria	2007	only	-	Nov	 Fri>=1	0:00	0	-
+
+# From Stephen Colebourne (2008-03-17):
+# For everyone's info, I saw an IATA time zone change for [Syria] for
+# this month (March 2008) in the last day or so...This is the data IATA
+# are now using:
+# Country     Time Standard   --- DST Start ---   --- DST End ---  DST
+# Name        Zone Variation   Time    Date        Time    Date
+# Variation
+# Syrian Arab
+# Republic    SY    +0200      2200  03APR08       2100  30SEP08   +0300
+#                              2200  02APR09       2100  30SEP09   +0300
+#                              2200  01APR10       2100  30SEP10   +0300
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-17):
+# Here's a link to English-language coverage by the Syrian Arab News
+# Agency (SANA)...
+# <a href="http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm">
+# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm
+# </a>...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the
+# Ministry of Electricity to begin daylight savings time on Friday April
+# 4th, advancing clocks one hour ahead on midnight of Thursday April 3rd."
+# Since Syria is two hours east of UTC, the 2200 and 2100 transition times
+# shown above match up with midnight in Syria.
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
+# My buest guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1";
+# coding that involves either using a "Mar Fri>=29" construct that old time zone
+# compilers can't handle  or having multiple Rules (a la Israel).
+# For now, use "Apr Fri>=1", and go with IATA on a uniform Sep 30 end.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-10-07):
+# Syria has now officially decided to end DST on 2008-11-01 this year,
+# according to the following article in the Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA).
+#
+# The article is in Arabic, and seems to tell that they will go back to
+# winter time on 2008-11-01 at 00:00 local daylight time (delaying/setting
+# clocks back 60 minutes).
+#
+# <a href="http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm">
+# http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm
+# </a>
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-19):
+# Syria will start DST on 2009-03-27 00:00 this year according to many sources,
+# two examples:
+#
+# <a href="http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm">
+# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm
+# </a>
+# (English, Syrian Arab News # Agency)
+# <a href="http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209">
+# http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209
+# </a>
+# (Arabic, gov-site)
+#
+# We have not found any sources saying anything about when DST ends this year.
+#
+# Our summary
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-27):
+# The Syrian Arab News Network on 2009-09-29 reported that Syria will 
+# revert back to winter (standard) time on midnight between Thursday 
+# 2009-10-29 and Friday 2009-10-30:
+# <a href="http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm">
+# http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm (Arabic)
+# </a>
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
+# We'll see if future DST switching times turn out to be end of the last
+# Thursday of the month or the start of the last Friday of the month or
+# something else. For now, use the start of the last Friday.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-17):
+# The "Syrian News Station" reported on 2010-03-16 that the Council of
+# Ministers has decided that Syria will start DST on midnight Thursday
+# 2010-04-01: (midnight between Thursday and Friday):
+# <a href="http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421">
+# http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421 (Arabic)
+# </a>
+
+Rule	Syria	2008	only	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	2008	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Syria	2009	only	-	Mar	lastFri	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	2010	max	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Syria	2009	max	-	Oct	lastFri	0:00	0	-
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Damascus	2:25:12 -	LMT	1920	# Dimashq
+			2:00	Syria	EE%sT
+
+# Tajikistan
+# From Shanks & Pottenger.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Dushanbe	4:35:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
+			5:00	-	DUST	1930 Jun 21 # Dushanbe Time
+			6:00 RussiaAsia DUS%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			5:00	1:00	DUSST	1991 Sep  9 2:00s
+			5:00	-	TJT		    # Tajikistan Time
+
+# Thailand
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Bangkok	6:42:04	-	LMT	1880
+			6:42:04	-	BMT	1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time
+			7:00	-	ICT
+
+# Turkmenistan
+# From Shanks & Pottenger.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Ashgabat	3:53:32 -	LMT	1924 May  2 # or Ashkhabad
+			4:00	-	ASHT	1930 Jun 21 # Ashkhabad Time
+			5:00 RussiaAsia	ASH%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00
+			4:00 RussiaAsia	ASH%sT	1991 Oct 27 # independence
+			4:00 RussiaAsia	TM%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00
+			5:00	-	TMT
+
+# United Arab Emirates
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Dubai	3:41:12 -	LMT	1920
+			4:00	-	GST
+
+# Uzbekistan
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Samarkand	4:27:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
+			4:00	-	SAMT	1930 Jun 21 # Samarkand Time
+			5:00	-	SAMT	1981 Apr  1
+			5:00	1:00	SAMST	1981 Oct  1
+			6:00	-	TAST	1982 Apr  1 # Tashkent Time
+			5:00 RussiaAsia	SAM%sT	1991 Sep  1 # independence
+			5:00 RussiaAsia	UZ%sT	1992
+			5:00	-	UZT
+Zone	Asia/Tashkent	4:37:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
+			5:00	-	TAST	1930 Jun 21 # Tashkent Time
+			6:00 RussiaAsia	TAS%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00
+			5:00 RussiaAsia	TAS%sT	1991 Sep  1 # independence
+			5:00 RussiaAsia	UZ%sT	1992
+			5:00	-	UZT
+
+# Vietnam
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
+# The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Min City";
+# we use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters.
+
+# From Shanks & Pottenger:
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh	7:06:40 -	LMT	1906 Jun  9
+			7:06:20	-	SMT	1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT?
+			7:00	-	ICT	1912 May
+			8:00	-	ICT	1931 May
+			7:00	-	ICT
+
+# Yemen
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Asia/Aden	3:00:48	-	LMT	1950
+			3:00	-	AST
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/components/timezone/australasia	Thu Aug 04 11:29:10 2011 +0530
@@ -0,0 +1,1581 @@
+# <pre>
+# @(#)australasia	8.23
+# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
+# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
+
+# This file also includes Pacific islands.
+
+# Notes are at the end of this file
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# Australia
+
+# Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Aus	1917	only	-	Jan	 1	0:01	1:00	-
+Rule	Aus	1917	only	-	Mar	25	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Jan	 1	2:00	1:00	-
+Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Mar	29	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Sep	27	2:00	1:00	-
+Rule	Aus	1943	1944	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Aus	1943	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00	1:00	-
+# Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
+# says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944.  Ignore Whitman's claim that
+# 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+# Northern Territory
+Zone Australia/Darwin	 8:43:20 -	LMT	1895 Feb
+			 9:00	-	CST	1899 May
+			 9:30	Aus	CST
+# Western Australia
+#
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	AW	1974	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AW	1975	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AW	1983	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AW	1984	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AW	1991	only	-	Nov	17	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AW	1992	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AW	2006	only	-	Dec	 3	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AW	2007	2009	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AW	2007	2008	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Zone Australia/Perth	 7:43:24 -	LMT	1895 Dec
+			 8:00	Aus	WST	1943 Jul
+			 8:00	AW	WST
+Zone Australia/Eucla	 8:35:28 -	LMT	1895 Dec
+			 8:45	Aus	CWST	1943 Jul
+			 8:45	AW	CWST
+
+# Queensland
+#
+# From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):
+# I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast
+# of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after
+# Queensland ceased to.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
+# IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,
+# Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.
+# Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,
+# so use Lindeman.
+#
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	AQ	1971	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AQ	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AQ	1989	1991	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AQ	1990	1992	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Holiday	1992	1993	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	Holiday	1993	1994	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Zone Australia/Brisbane	10:12:08 -	LMT	1895
+			10:00	Aus	EST	1971
+			10:00	AQ	EST
+Zone Australia/Lindeman  9:55:56 -	LMT	1895
+			10:00	Aus	EST	1971
+			10:00	AQ	EST	1992 Jul
+			10:00	Holiday	EST
+
+# South Australia
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	AS	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AS	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AS	1987	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AS	1972	only	-	Feb	27	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AS	1973	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AS	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AS	1991	only	-	Mar	3	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AS	1992	only	-	Mar	22	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AS	1993	only	-	Mar	7	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AS	1994	only	-	Mar	20	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AS	1995	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AS	2006	only	-	Apr	2	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AS	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AS	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AS	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Australia/Adelaide	9:14:20 -	LMT	1895 Feb
+			9:00	-	CST	1899 May
+			9:30	Aus	CST	1971
+			9:30	AS	CST
+
+# Tasmania
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
+# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml>
+# says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
+#
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	AT	1967	only	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AT	1968	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AT	1968	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AT	1969	1971	-	Mar	Sun>=8	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AT	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AT	1973	1981	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AT	1982	1983	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AT	1984	1986	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AT	1986	only	-	Oct	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AT	1987	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AT	1987	only	-	Oct	Sun>=22	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AT	1988	1990	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AT	1991	1999	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AT	1991	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AT	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AT	2001	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AT	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AT	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AT	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Australia/Hobart	9:49:16	-	LMT	1895 Sep
+			10:00	-	EST	1916 Oct 1 2:00
+			10:00	1:00	EST	1917 Feb
+			10:00	Aus	EST	1967
+			10:00	AT	EST
+Zone Australia/Currie	9:35:28	-	LMT	1895 Sep
+			10:00	-	EST	1916 Oct 1 2:00
+			10:00	1:00	EST	1917 Feb
+			10:00	Aus	EST	1971 Jul
+			10:00	AT	EST
+
+# Victoria
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	AV	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AV	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AV	1973	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AV	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AV	1986	1987	-	Oct	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AV	1988	1999	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AV	1991	1994	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AV	1995	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AV	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AV	2001	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AV	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AV	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AV	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AV	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -	LMT	1895 Feb
+			10:00	Aus	EST	1971
+			10:00	AV	EST
+
+# New South Wales
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	AN	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AN	1972	only	-	Feb	27	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AN	1973	1981	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AN	1982	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AN	1983	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AN	1986	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AN	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AN	1987	1999	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AN	1990	1995	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AN	1996	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AN	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AN	2001	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
+Rule	AN	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AN	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AN	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	AN	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Australia/Sydney	10:04:52 -	LMT	1895 Feb
+			10:00	Aus	EST	1971
+			10:00	AN	EST
+Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -	LMT	1895 Feb
+			10:00	-	EST	1896 Aug 23
+			9:00	-	CST	1899 May
+			9:30	Aus	CST	1971
+			9:30	AN	CST	2000
+			9:30	AS	CST
+
+# Lord Howe Island
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	LH	1981	1984	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	-
+Rule	LH	1982	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
+Rule	LH	1985	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0:30	-
+Rule	LH	1986	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00	0	-
+Rule	LH	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00	0:30	-
+Rule	LH	1987	1999	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0:30	-
+Rule	LH	1990	1995	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
+Rule	LH	1996	2005	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	-
+Rule	LH	2000	only	-	Aug	lastSun	2:00	0:30	-
+Rule	LH	2001	2007	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0:30	-
+Rule	LH	2006	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
+Rule	LH	2007	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	-
+Rule	LH	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
+Rule	LH	2008	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	0:30	-
+Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 -	LMT	1895 Feb
+			10:00	-	EST	1981 Mar
+			10:30	LH	LHST
+
+# Australian miscellany
+#
+# Ashmore Is, Cartier
+# no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
+# no times are set
+#
+# Coral Sea Is
+# no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists
+# no times are set
+#
+# Macquarie
+# permanent occupation (scientific station) since 1948;
+# sealing and penguin oil station operated 1888/1917
+# like Australia/Hobart
+
+# Christmas
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Indian/Christmas	7:02:52 -	LMT	1895 Feb
+			7:00	-	CXT	# Christmas Island Time
+
+# Cook Is
+# From Shanks & Pottenger:
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Cook	1978	only	-	Nov	12	0:00	0:30	HS
+Rule	Cook	1979	1991	-	Mar	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Cook	1979	1990	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0:30	HS
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Rarotonga	-10:39:04 -	LMT	1901		# Avarua
+			-10:30	-	CKT	1978 Nov 12	# Cook Is Time
+			-10:00	Cook	CK%sT
+
+# Cocos
+# These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
+# We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Indian/Cocos	6:27:40	-	LMT	1900
+			6:30	-	CCT	# Cocos Islands Time
+
+# Fiji
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10):
+# According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation,  Fiji plans to re-introduce DST
+# from November 29th 2009  to April 25th 2010.
+#
+# "Daylight savings to commence this month"
+# <a href="http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719">
+# http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719
+# </a>
+# or
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):
+# The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved
+# amendments:
+# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml">
+# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml
+# </a>
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03):
+# The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on
+# 2010-03-28 at 03:00.
+# The plan is to observe DST again, from 2010-10-24 to sometime in March
+# 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?).
+#
+# Official source:
+# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166">
+# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166
+# </a>
+#
+# A bit more background info here:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-10-24):
+# According to Radio Fiji and Fiji Times online, Fiji will end DST 3 
+# weeks earlier than expected - on March 6, 2011, not March 27, 2011...
+# Here is confirmation from Government of the Republic of the Fiji Islands, 
+# Ministry of Information (fiji.gov.fj) web site:
+# <a href="http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155">
+# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
+# </a>
+# or
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html
+# </a>
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Fiji	1998	1999	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Fiji	1999	2000	-	Feb	lastSun	3:00	0	-
+Rule	Fiji	2009	only	-	Nov	29	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Fiji	2010	only	-	Mar	lastSun	3:00	0	-
+Rule	Fiji	2010	only	-	Oct	24	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Fiji	2011	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Pacific/Fiji	11:53:40 -	LMT	1915 Oct 26	# Suva
+			12:00	Fiji	FJ%sT	# Fiji Time
+
+# French Polynesia
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Pacific/Gambier	 -8:59:48 -	LMT	1912 Oct	# Rikitea
+			 -9:00	-	GAMT	# Gambier Time
+Zone	Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -	LMT	1912 Oct
+			 -9:30	-	MART	# Marquesas Time
+Zone	Pacific/Tahiti	 -9:58:16 -	LMT	1912 Oct	# Papeete
+			-10:00	-	TAHT	# Tahiti Time
+# Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
+# it is uninhabited.
+
+# Guam
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Pacific/Guam	-14:21:00 -	LMT	1844 Dec 31
+			 9:39:00 -	LMT	1901		# Agana
+			10:00	-	GST	2000 Dec 23	# Guam
+			10:00	-	ChST	# Chamorro Standard Time
+
+# Kiribati
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Tarawa	 11:32:04 -	LMT	1901		# Bairiki
+			 12:00	-	GILT		 # Gilbert Is Time
+Zone Pacific/Enderbury	-11:24:20 -	LMT	1901
+			-12:00	-	PHOT	1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time
+			-11:00	-	PHOT	1995
+			 13:00	-	PHOT
+Zone Pacific/Kiritimati	-10:29:20 -	LMT	1901
+			-10:40	-	LINT	1979 Oct # Line Is Time
+			-10:00	-	LINT	1995
+			 14:00	-	LINT
+
+# N Mariana Is
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Saipan	-14:17:00 -	LMT	1844 Dec 31
+			 9:43:00 -	LMT	1901
+			 9:00	-	MPT	1969 Oct # N Mariana Is Time
+			10:00	-	MPT	2000 Dec 23
+			10:00	-	ChST	# Chamorro Standard Time
+
+# Marshall Is
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Majuro	11:24:48 -	LMT	1901
+			11:00	-	MHT	1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time
+			12:00	-	MHT
+Zone Pacific/Kwajalein	11:09:20 -	LMT	1901
+			11:00	-	MHT	1969 Oct
+			-12:00	-	KWAT	1993 Aug 20	# Kwajalein Time
+			12:00	-	MHT
+
+# Micronesia
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Chuuk	10:07:08 -	LMT	1901
+			10:00	-	CHUT			# Chuuk Time
+Zone Pacific/Pohnpei	10:32:52 -	LMT	1901		# Kolonia
+			11:00	-	PONT			# Pohnpei Time
+Zone Pacific/Kosrae	10:51:56 -	LMT	1901
+			11:00	-	KOST	1969 Oct	# Kosrae Time
+			12:00	-	KOST	1999
+			11:00	-	KOST
+
+# Nauru
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Pacific/Nauru	11:07:40 -	LMT	1921 Jan 15	# Uaobe
+			11:30	-	NRT	1942 Mar 15	# Nauru Time
+			9:00	-	JST	1944 Aug 15
+			11:30	-	NRT	1979 May
+			12:00	-	NRT
+
+# New Caledonia
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	NC	1977	1978	-	Dec	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	NC	1978	1979	-	Feb	27	0:00	0	-
+Rule	NC	1996	only	-	Dec	 1	2:00s	1:00	S
+# Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
+Rule	NC	1997	only	-	Mar	 2	2:00s	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Pacific/Noumea	11:05:48 -	LMT	1912 Jan 13
+			11:00	NC	NC%sT
+
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# New Zealand
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	NZ	1927	only	-	Nov	 6	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	NZ	1928	only	-	Mar	 4	2:00	0	M
+Rule	NZ	1928	1933	-	Oct	Sun>=8	2:00	0:30	S
+Rule	NZ	1929	1933	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00	0	M
+Rule	NZ	1934	1940	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	0	M
+Rule	NZ	1934	1940	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0:30	S
+Rule	NZ	1946	only	-	Jan	 1	0:00	0	S
+# Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but there's no
+# convenient notation for this so we must duplicate the Rule lines.
+Rule	NZ	1974	only	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	Chatham	1974	only	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:45s	1:00	D
+Rule	NZ	1975	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	Chatham	1975	only	-	Feb	lastSun	2:45s	0	S
+Rule	NZ	1975	1988	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	Chatham	1975	1988	-	Oct	lastSun	2:45s	1:00	D
+Rule	NZ	1976	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	Chatham	1976	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:45s	0	S
+Rule	NZ	1989	only	-	Oct	Sun>=8	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	Chatham	1989	only	-	Oct	Sun>=8	2:45s	1:00	D
+Rule	NZ	1990	2006	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	Chatham	1990	2006	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:45s	1:00	D
+Rule	NZ	1990	2007	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	Chatham	1990	2007	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:45s	0	S
+Rule	NZ	2007	max	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
+Rule	Chatham	2007	max	-	Sep	lastSun	2:45s	1:00	D
+Rule	NZ	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
+Rule	Chatham	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:45s	0	S
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Auckland	11:39:04 -	LMT	1868 Nov  2
+			11:30	NZ	NZ%sT	1946 Jan  1
+			12:00	NZ	NZ%sT
+Zone Pacific/Chatham	12:13:48 -	LMT	1957 Jan  1
+			12:45	Chatham	CHA%sT
+
+
+# Auckland Is
+# uninhabited; Maori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
+# and scientific personnel have wintered
+
+# Campbell I
+# minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914
+# scientific station operated 1941/1995;
+# previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
+# was probably like Pacific/Auckland
+
+###############################################################################
+
+
+# Niue
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Pacific/Niue	-11:19:40 -	LMT	1901		# Alofi
+			-11:20	-	NUT	1951	# Niue Time
+			-11:30	-	NUT	1978 Oct 1
+			-11:00	-	NUT
+
+# Norfolk
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Pacific/Norfolk	11:11:52 -	LMT	1901		# Kingston
+			11:12	-	NMT	1951	# Norfolk Mean Time
+			11:30	-	NFT		# Norfolk Time
+
+# Palau (Belau)
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Palau	8:57:56 -	LMT	1901		# Koror
+			9:00	-	PWT	# Palau Time
+
+# Papua New Guinea
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -	LMT	1880
+			9:48:32	-	PMMT	1895	# Port Moresby Mean Time
+			10:00	-	PGT		# Papua New Guinea Time
+
+# Pitcairn
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Pitcairn	-8:40:20 -	LMT	1901		# Adamstown
+			-8:30	-	PNT	1998 Apr 27 00:00
+			-8:00	-	PST	# Pitcairn Standard Time
+
+# American Samoa
+Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago	 12:37:12 -	LMT	1879 Jul  5
+			-11:22:48 -	LMT	1911
+			-11:30	-	SAMT	1950		# Samoa Time
+			-11:00	-	NST	1967 Apr	# N=Nome
+			-11:00	-	BST	1983 Nov 30	# B=Bering
+			-11:00	-	SST			# S=Samoa
+
+# Samoa
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):
+# We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received
+# the following info:
+#
+# "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year
+# commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first
+# Sunday of April 2011."
+#
+# Background info:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html
+# </a>
+#
+# Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not
+# contain any dates:
+# <a href="http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf">
+# http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf
+# </a>
+
+# From Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07):
+# Please see
+# <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws">
+# http://www.mcil.gov.ws
+# </a>,
+# the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday
+# September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight
+# to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks
+# backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am"
+
+# From Raymond Hughes (2011-03-07)
+# I believe this will be posted shortly on the website
+# <a href="http://www.mcil.gov.ws">
+# www.mcil.gov.ws
+# </a>
+#
+# PUBLIC NOTICE ON DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME
+#
+# Pursuant to the Daylight Saving Act 2009 and Cabinets decision,
+# businesses and the general public are hereby advised that daylight
+# saving time is on the first Saturday of April 2011 (02/04/11).
+#
+# The public is therefore advised that when the standard time strikes
+# the hour of four oclock (4.00am or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011,
+# then all instruments used to measure standard time are to be
+# adjusted/changed to three oclock (3:00am or 0300Hrs).
+#
+# Margaret Fruean ACTING CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER MINISTRY OF COMMERCE,
+# INDUSTRY AND LABOUR 28th February 2011
+
+Zone Pacific/Apia	 12:33:04 -	LMT	1879 Jul  5
+			-11:26:56 -	LMT	1911
+			-11:30	-	SAMT	1950		# Samoa Time
+			-11:00	-	WST	2010 Sep 26
+			-11:00	1:00	WSDT	2011 Apr 2 4:00
+			-11:00	-	WST
+
+# Solomon Is
+# excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -	LMT	1912 Oct	# Honiara
+			11:00	-	SBT	# Solomon Is Time
+
+# Tokelau Is
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Pacific/Fakaofo	-11:24:56 -	LMT	1901
+			-10:00	-	TKT	# Tokelau Time
+
+# Tonga
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Tonga	1999	only	-	Oct	 7	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Tonga	2000	only	-	Mar	19	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Tonga	2000	2001	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Tonga	2001	2002	-	Jan	lastSun	2:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Tongatapu	12:19:20 -	LMT	1901
+			12:20	-	TOT	1941 # Tonga Time
+			13:00	-	TOT	1999
+			13:00	Tonga	TO%sT
+
+# Tuvalu
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Funafuti	11:56:52 -	LMT	1901
+			12:00	-	TVT	# Tuvalu Time
+
+
+# US minor outlying islands
+
+# Howland, Baker
+# Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British
+# 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.
+# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;
+# uninhabited thereafter.
+# Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UTC-10:30) in 1937;
+# see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,
+# Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).
+# So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935
+# until they were abandoned after the war.
+
+# Jarvis
+# Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.
+# Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;
+# uninhabited thereafter.
+# no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
+
+# Johnston
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Johnston	-10:00	-	HST
+
+# Kingman
+# uninhabited
+
+# Midway
+#
+# From Mark Brader (2005-01-23):
+# [Fallacies and Fantasies of Air Transport History, by R.E.G. Davies,
+# published 1994 by Paladwr Press, McLean, VA, USA; ISBN 0-9626483-5-3]
+# reproduced a Pan American Airways timeables from 1936, for their weekly
+# "Orient Express" flights between San Francisco and Manila, and connecting
+# flights to Chicago and the US East Coast.  As it uses some time zone
+# designations that I've never seen before:....
+# Fri. 6:30A Lv. HONOLOLU (Pearl Harbor), H.I.   H.L.T. Ar. 5:30P Sun.
+#  "   3:00P Ar. MIDWAY ISLAND . . . . . . . . . M.L.T. Lv. 6:00A  "
+#
+Zone Pacific/Midway	-11:49:28 -	LMT	1901
+			-11:00	-	NST	1956 Jun  3
+			-11:00	1:00	NDT	1956 Sep  2
+			-11:00	-	NST	1967 Apr	# N=Nome
+			-11:00	-	BST	1983 Nov 30	# B=Bering
+			-11:00	-	SST			# S=Samoa
+
+# Palmyra
+# uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
+
+# Wake
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Pacific/Wake	11:06:28 -	LMT	1901
+			12:00	-	WAKT	# Wake Time
+
+
+# Vanuatu
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Vanuatu	1983	only	-	Sep	25	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Vanuatu	1984	1991	-	Mar	Sun>=23	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Vanuatu	1984	only	-	Oct	23	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Vanuatu	1985	1991	-	Sep	Sun>=23	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Vanuatu	1992	1993	-	Jan	Sun>=23	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Vanuatu	1992	only	-	Oct	Sun>=23	0:00	1:00	S
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Pacific/Efate	11:13:16 -	LMT	1912 Jan 13		# Vila
+			11:00	Vanuatu	VU%sT	# Vanuatu Time
+
+# Wallis and Futuna
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Pacific/Wallis	12:15:20 -	LMT	1901
+			12:00	-	WFT	# Wallis & Futuna Time
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# NOTES
+
+# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
+# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
+# [email protected] for general use in the future).
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
+# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
+# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
+#
+# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
+# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
+# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
+# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
+# of the IATA's data after 1990.
+#
+# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
+# entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
+#
+# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
+# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
+# I found in the UCLA library.
+#
+# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
+# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
+#
+# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
+# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
+# Corrections are welcome!
+#		std dst
+#		LMT	Local Mean Time
+#	  8:00	WST WST	Western Australia
+#	  8:45	CWST CWST Central Western Australia*
+#	  9:00	JST	Japan
+#	  9:30	CST CST	Central Australia
+#	 10:00	EST EST	Eastern Australia
+#	 10:00	ChST	Chamorro
+#	 10:30	LHST LHST Lord Howe*
+#	 11:30	NZMT NZST New Zealand through 1945
+#	 12:00	NZST NZDT New Zealand 1946-present
+#	 12:45	CHAST CHADT Chatham*
+#	-11:00	SST	Samoa
+#	-10:00	HST	Hawaii
+#	- 8:00	PST	Pitcairn*
+#
+# See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii.
+# See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is.
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# Australia
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08):
+# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml">
+# Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia
+# </a> summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12):
+# <a href="http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving">
+# Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales
+# </a> covers New South Wales in particular.
+
+# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
+# We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time.
+# It is called `summer' time.  Now by a happy coincidence, `summer'
+# and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
+# abbreviation does _not_ change...
+# The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
+# in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
+# initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
+# the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight
+# time'.
+# Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
+# Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time'
+# or `Eastern Summer Time'.  (Note, though, that as I say in the
+# current australasia file, there is really no such thing.)  Announcers
+# on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
+# prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times;
+# time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
+# Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is:
+#	CST	for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30
+#	WST	for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00
+#	EST	for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00
+
+# From Chuck Soper (2006-06-01):
+# I recently found this Australian government web page on time zones:
+# <http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia-13time>
+# And this government web page lists time zone names and abbreviations:
+# <http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml>
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2001-04-05), summarizing a long discussion about "EST"
+# versus "AEST" etc.:
+#
+# I see the following points of dispute:
+#
+# * How important are unique time zone abbreviations?
+#
+#   Here I tend to agree with the point (most recently made by Chris
+#   Newman) that unique abbreviations should not be essential for proper
+#   operation of software.  We have other instances of ambiguity
+#   (e.g. "IST" denoting both "Israel Standard Time" and "Indian
+#   Standard Time"), and they are not likely to go away any time soon.
+#   In the old days, some software mistakenly relied on unique
+#   abbreviations, but this is becoming less true with time, and I don't
+#   think it's that important to cater to such software these days.
+#
+#   On the other hand, there is another motivation for unambiguous
+#   abbreviations: it cuts down on human confusion.  This is
+#   particularly true for Australia, where "EST" can mean one thing for
+#   time T and a different thing for time T plus 1 second.
+#
+# * Does the relevant legislation indicate which abbreviations should be used?
+#
+#   Here I tend to think that things are a mess, just as they are in
+#   many other countries.  We Americans are currently disagreeing about
+#   which abbreviation to use for the newly legislated Chamorro Standard
+#   Time, for example.
+#
+#   Personally, I would prefer to use common practice; I would like to
+#   refer to legislation only for examples of common practice, or as a
+#   tiebreaker.
+#
+# * Do Australians more often use "Eastern Daylight Time" or "Eastern
+#   Summer Time"?  Do they typically prefix the time zone names with
+#   the word "Australian"?
+#
+#   My own impression is that both "Daylight Time" and "Summer Time" are
+#   common and are widely understood, but that "Summer Time" is more
+#   popular; and that the leading "A" is also common but is omitted more
+#   often than not.  I just used AltaVista advanced search and got the
+#   following count of page hits:
+#
+#     1,103 "Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
+#       971 "Australian Eastern Summer Time" AND domain:au
+#       613 "Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
+#       127 "Australian Eastern Daylight Time" AND domain:au
+#
+#   Here "Summer" seems quite a bit more popular than "Daylight",
+#   particularly when we know the time zone is Australian and not US,
+#   say.  The "Australian" prefix seems to be popular for Eastern Summer
+#   Time, but unpopular for Eastern Daylight Time.
+#
+#   For abbreviations, tools like AltaVista are less useful because of
+#   ambiguity.  Many hits are not really time zones, unfortunately, and
+#   many hits denote US time zones and not Australian ones.  But here
+#   are the hit counts anyway:
+#
+#     161,304 "EST" and domain:au
+#      25,156 "EDT" and domain:au
+#      18,263 "AEST" and domain:au
+#      10,416 "AEDT" and domain:au
+#
+#      14,538 "CST" and domain:au
+#       5,728 "CDT" and domain:au
+#         176 "ACST" and domain:au
+#          29 "ACDT" and domain:au
+#
+#       7,539 "WST" and domain:au
+#          68 "AWST" and domain:au
+#
+#   This data suggest that Australians tend to omit the "A" prefix in
+#   practice.  The situation for "ST" versus "DT" is less clear, given
+#   the ambiguities involved.
+#
+# * How do Australians feel about the abbreviations in the tz database?
+#
+#   If you just count Australians on this list, I count 2 in favor and 3
+#   against.  One of the "against" votes (David Keegel) counseled delay,
+#   saying that both AEST/AEDT and EST/EST are widely used and
+#   understood in Australia.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
+# Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
+# Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
+# reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
+# but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
+# and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time.
+# For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
+
+# From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
+#
+# Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,
+# and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more
+# relevant entries in this database.
+#
+# NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
+# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html">
+# Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
+# </a>
+# ACT
+# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html">
+# Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
+# </a>
+# SA
+# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html">
+# Standard Time Act, 1898
+# </a>
+
+# From David Grosz (2005-06-13):
+# It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by
+# one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.
+# Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday
+# in April instead of the last Sunday in March.
+#
+# From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14):
+# I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan
+# to extend DST together in 2006.
+# ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt
+# New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html
+# South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html
+# Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772
+# Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles
+# allude to it.
+# But not Queensland
+# http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html.
+
+# Northern Territory
+
+# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
+# # The NORTHERN TERRITORY..  [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]
+# #					[ Nov 1990 ]
+# #	N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.
+# ...
+# Zone        Australia/North         9:30    -       CST
+
+# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
+# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
+# the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving.
+
+# Western Australia
+
+# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
+# #  The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA..  [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ]
+# #						[ Nov 1990 ]
+# #	W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to
+# #	DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but
+# #	usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus
+# #	before reaching parliament.
+# ...
+# Zone	Australia/West		8:00	AW	%sST
+# ...
+# Rule	AW	1974	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
+# Rule	AW	1975	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	W
+# Rule	AW	1983	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
+# Rule	AW	1984	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	W
+
+# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
+# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
+# Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving.
+
+# From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02):
+# Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney
+# rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at
+# work at 9.00am.)
+# W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse
+# everybody again.
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
+# The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
+# it matches what was used in the past.
+
+# <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm">
+# The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ
+# </a> (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
+# South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.
+
+# Queensland
+# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
+# #   The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ]
+# #						[ Dec 1990 ]
+# ...
+# Zone	Australia/Queensland	10:00	AQ	%sST
+# ...
+# Rule	AQ	1971	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
+# Rule	AQ	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	3:00	0	E
+# Rule	AQ	1989	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
+# Rule	AQ	1990	max	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	E
+
+# From Bradley White (1989-12-24):
+# "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from
+# October 1989).
+
+# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
+# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
+# ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
+# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
+
+# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
+# I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact
+# end on Sunday, 3 March.  I don't know at what hour, though.  (It surprised
+# me.)
+
+# From Bradley White (1992-03-08):
+# ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted
+# in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...
+# ...
+# Rule	QLD	1989	1991	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
+# Rule	QLD	1990	1992	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	S
+# ...
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
+# The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.
+
+# From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning
+# from Jesper Norgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
+# WA are trialing DST for three years.
+# <http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf>
+
+# From Rives McDow (2002-04-09):
+# The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the
+# southern coast....  South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western
+# Australia does not.  The two states are one and a half hours apart.  The
+# residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so
+# much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the
+# international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South
+# Australia and Western Australia....
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09):
+# This is confirmed by the section entitled
+# "What's the deal with time zones???" in
+# <http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html>.
+#
+# From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07):
+# ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
+# which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern
+# coast of the continent.
+#
+# I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no
+# dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border
+# village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west
+# as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
+# the largest population centre in this zone....
+#
+# Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the
+# question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I
+# just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have,
+# meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
+#
+# (2006-12-09):
+# I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
+# in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
+# of this time zone.  My hunch is that it's been around since well
+# before 1975.  I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
+# For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
+# introduction of standard time in 1895.
+
+
+# southeast Australia
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
+# Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT
+# end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October.
+# http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html
+
+
+# South Australia
+
+# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
+# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
+# ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
+# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
+
+# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
+# #   The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ]
+# #						[ Nov 1990 ]
+# ...
+# Zone	Australia/South		9:30	AS	%sST
+# ...
+# Rule	 AS	1971	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
+# Rule	 AS	1972	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	C
+# Rule	 AS	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	3:00	0	C
+# Rule	 AS	1991	max	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	C
+
+# From Bradley White (1992-03-11):
+# Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide
+# contained the following exchange:  "Due to the Adelaide Festival,
+# South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks."
+
+# From Robert Elz (1992-03-13):
+# I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that)
+# South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even
+# numbered year (from 1990).  That's when the Adelaide Festival
+# is on...
+
+# From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000):
+# DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday)....
+# But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever...
+# (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...).
+
+# From Bradley White (1994-04-11):
+# If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March,
+# 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can
+# only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....
+
+# From John Warburton (1994-10-07):
+# The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ...
+# was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994....
+# start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
+# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
+
+# Tasmania
+
+# The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
+# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
+# #  The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
+# #					[ Nov 1990 ]
+
+# From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10):
+# Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have
+# 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia
+# (but nothing new about that).
+
+# From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04):
+# I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the
+# (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard,
+# has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria
+# (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000
+# instead of the first Sunday in October.
+
+# Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules:
+# http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/[email protected]+2000070300
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
+# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
+
+# Victoria
+
+# The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
+# via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
+# #   The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
+# #						[ Nov 1990 ]
+
+# From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29):
+# On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an
+# interesting story about daylight savings time.  Dr. John Heilbron was
+# discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar
+# Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located
+# in Melbourne, Australia.
+#
+# Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which
+# illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day
+# of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's
+# fallen WWI soldiers.  And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time,
+# you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the
+# expected time.
+#
+# However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had
+# to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of
+# the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?).  Perhaps
+# someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more.
+#
+# [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html
+# [2] http://www.shrine.org.au
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
+# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
+
+# New South Wales
+
+# From Arthur David Olson:
+# New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.
+# Based on law library research by John Mackin,
+# who notes:
+#	In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
+#	individual states.  Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time''
+#	[I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
+#	use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
+#	legislation.  This is very important to understand.
+#	I have researched New South Wales time only...
+
+# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
+# DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual
+# October in 2000.  [See: Matthew Moore,
+# <a href="http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html">
+# Two months more daylight saving
+# </a>
+# Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).]
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):
+# See the following official NSW source:
+# <a href="http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ">
+# Daylight Saving in New South Wales.
+# </a>
+#
+# Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of
+# daylight saving next year.  See:
+# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm">
+# Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving
+# </a> (1999-07-22).  For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
+#
+# Victoria will following NSW.  See:
+# <a href="http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm">
+# Vic to extend daylight saving
+# </a> (1999-07-28).
+#
+# However, South Australia rejected the DST request.  See:
+# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm">
+# South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request
+# </a> (1999-07-19).
+#
+# Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics.  See:
+# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm">
+# Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics
+# </a> (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
+# ``Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
+# I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very
+# well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
+# bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
+# I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules.''
+#
+# Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000.  See:
+# <a href="http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm">
+# Broken Hill to be behind the times
+# </a> (1999-07-21).
+
+# IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian
+# Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken
+# Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.
+
+# From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:
+# The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW
+# towns to use Queensland time.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
+# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
+
+# Yancowinna
+
+# From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
+# `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
+
+# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
+# # YANCOWINNA..  [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
+# #					[ Dec 1990 ]
+# ...
+# # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
+# # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings
+# # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government
+# # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have
+# # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not
+# # presently available.
+# Zone	Australia/Yancowinna	9:30	 AY	%sST
+# ...
+# Rule	 AY	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
+# Rule	 AY	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	3:00	0	C
+# [followed by other Rules]
+
+# Lord Howe Island
+
+# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
+# LHI...		[ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ]
+#					[ Dec 1990 ]
+# Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an
+# hour ahead of NSW time.
+
+# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27):
+# Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same
+# date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27).  For your information the
+# Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is
+# seeking the community's views on various options for summer time
+# arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour
+# instead of only 30 minutes.  Dependant on the wishes of residents
+# the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing
+# arrangements.  The starting date for summer time on the Island will
+# however always coincide with the rest of NSW.
+
+# From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25):
+# Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards
+# clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently
+# introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as
+# shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start
+# of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and
+# Lonergan thereafter.  For times we use Lonergan.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
+# See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28):
+# According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight 
+# saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009 
+# summer (southern hemisphere).
+# 
+# From
+# <a href="http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf">
+# http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf
+# </a>
+# The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling 
+# for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.
+# Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each 
+# year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year.
+# Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia 
+# with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and 
+# the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...
+# 
+# We have a wrap-up here:
+# <a href="http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html">
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html
+# </a>
+###############################################################################
+
+# New Zealand
+
+# From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):
+# the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
+# This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
+# subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
+# source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
+
+# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
+# # The Country of New Zealand   (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
+# #				   or is Australia the west island of N.Z.
+# #	[ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]
+# #				[ Nov 1990 ]
+# ...
+# Rule	NZ      1974    1988	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
+# Rule	NZ	1989	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
+# Rule	NZ      1975    1989	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	S
+# Rule	NZ	1990	max	-	Mar	lastSun	3:00	0	S
+# ...
+# Zone	NZ			12:00	NZ		NZ%sT	# New Zealand
+# Zone	NZ-CHAT			12:45	-		NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
+# The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989
+# rather than the October 1 value.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);
+# Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
+# Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight
+# Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard
+# time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.
+# As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history,
+# as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.htm for the full references.
+# Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger.
+#
+# For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with
+# transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham
+# is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.
+
+# From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30):
+# DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the
+# first Sunday in April.  The changes take effect this year, meaning
+# that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
+# http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
+
+###############################################################################
+
+
+# Fiji
+
+# Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
+# enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
+# instead of the American system (which was one day behind).
+
+# From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
+# Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
+# until 0300 local time 1999-02-28.  Each year the DST period will
+# be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):
+# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time.  Go with McDow.
+
+# From the BBC World Service (1998-10-31 11:32 UTC):
+# The Fijiian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
+# improve productivity and reduce road accidents.  But correspondents say it
+# also hopes the move will boost Fiji's ability to compete with other pacific
+# islands in the effort to attract tourists to witness the dawning of the new
+# millenium.
+
+# http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
+# reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
+
+# Johnston
+
+# Johnston data is from usno1995.
+
+
+# Kiribati
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
+# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
+# ``declared it the same day throught the country as of Jan. 1, 1995''
+# as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
+
+
+# Kwajalein
+
+# In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:
+# I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,
+# 1993-08-20.  Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with
+# respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,
+# going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.
+
+
+# N Mariana Is, Guam
+
+# Howse writes (p 153) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
+# Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones
+# (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
+# For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
+# see Asia/Manila.
+
+# US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UTC+10 the official standard time,
+# under the name "Chamorro Standard Time".  There is no official abbreviation,
+# but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
+# wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
+
+
+# Micronesia
+
+# Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
+# ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk"
+# (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.''
+#
+# Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UTC+10 to UTC+11
+# on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
+# The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
+# <a href="http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html">
+# The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information
+# </a> (1999-01-26)
+# that Truk and Yap are UTC+10, and Ponape and Kosrae are UTC+11.
+# We don't know when Kosrae switched from UTC+12; assume January 1 for now.
+
+
+# Midway
+
+# From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
+# quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
+# <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
+# For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
+# Saving Time.  This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
+# your time down there in New Zealand.  Starting September 2, 1956
+# we'll again go back to Standard Time.  This'll mean that we'll go to
+# air at 6am your time.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
+# We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
+# started DST on June 3.  Possibly DST was observed other years
+# in Midway, but we have no record of it.
+
+
+# Pitcairn
+
+# From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
+# A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
+# with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows.
+#
+#	The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
+#	Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
+#	as Pitcairn Standard Time.
+#
+# ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
+# references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
+# somehow in light of this proclamation.
+
+# From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
+# The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
+# ... at midnight.
+
+# From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
+# Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as
+# Pacific Standard Time. They used to be 1/2 hour different from us here in
+# Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.
+
+
+# Samoa
+
+# Howse writes (p 153, citing p 10 of the 1883-11-18 New York Herald)
+# that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change
+# ``the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
+# ordaining -- by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery -- that
+# the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year.''
+
+
+# Tonga
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
+# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that ``Tonga has been plotting
+# to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time.''
+# Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.
+
+# Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle
+# <a href="http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm">
+# How Tonga became `The Land where Time Begins'
+# </a>:
+
+# Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST
+# 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT.  When New Zealand adjusted its
+# standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its
+# local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of
+# advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13 degrees
+# (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).
+#
+# Because His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
+# Tungi, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
+# begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.
+#
+# But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer
+# islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40
+# minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40
+# minutes we have lost?"
+#
+# The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that
+# on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth
+# to say your prayers in the morning."
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell.
+
+# From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03):
+# Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millenium
+# Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front.
+# He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from
+# October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan
+# Government.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
+# * Tonga will introduce DST in November
+#
+# I was given this link by John Letts:
+# <a href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm">
+# http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm
+# </a>
+#
+# I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November
+# yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead
+# of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead
+# (12 + 1 hour DST).
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
+# According to <a href="http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html">
+# http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html
+# </a>:
+# "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000
+# and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the
+# third Saturday of April.  Under the system approved by Privy Council on
+# Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and
+# set back an hour on the closing date."
+# Alas, no indication of the time of day.
+
+# From Rives McDow (1999-10-06):
+# Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am.
+# Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31):
+# Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com
+# that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19
+# instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article
+# is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the
+# text, and I have forgotten to report it here.
+# (Original URL was: http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm )
+
+# From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
+# Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.
+
+# From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow:
+# At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom
+# shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am.  At 2:00am on the last Sunday
+# of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one
+# hour to 1:00am.
+
+# From Pulu 'Anau (2002-11-05):
+# The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed.  It wasn't.
+
+
+# Wake
+
+# From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
+# US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
+#
+# Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] -- ...  The time was all the
+# more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
+# International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays.  Furthermore, we
+# discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
+# making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
+# impossible.
+#
+# http://www.trumanlibrary.org/wake/meeting.htm
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
+# We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# The International Date Line
+
+# From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
+#
+# The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
+# convention, or treaty.  Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
+# Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
+# the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
+#
+# When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
+# Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
+# to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
+# mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati.  Even that line
+# has a rather arbitrary nature.  The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
+# island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
+# convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
+# governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some
+# places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC.  And, since the IDL is not
+# an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the
+# correct date is ambiguous.
+
+# From Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31):
+# Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting
+# their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's
+# speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's
+# meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon).  During 1917, at the
+# Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all
+# ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones
+# on the high seas.  Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any
+# nation it would use that nation's standard time.  The captain was permitted
+# to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's
+# entry into another zone time--he often chose midnight.  These zones were
+# adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many
+# independent merchant ships until World War II.
+
+# From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen
+# (2005-03-20):
+#
+# The American Practical Navigator (2002)
+# <http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187>
+# talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in
+# international waters; it ignores the international date line.
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/components/timezone/backward	Thu Aug 04 11:29:10 2011 +0530
@@ -0,0 +1,119 @@
+# Copyright (c) 1994, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+
+# <pre>
+# @(#)backward	8.9
+# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
+# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
+
+# This file provides links between current names for time zones
+# and their old names.  Many names changed in late 1993.
+
+Link	Africa/Asmara		Africa/Asmera
+Link	Africa/Bamako		Africa/Timbuktu
+Link	America/Argentina/Catamarca	America/Argentina/ComodRivadavia
+Link	America/Adak		America/Atka
+Link	America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires	America/Buenos_Aires
+Link	America/Argentina/Catamarca	America/Catamarca
+Link	America/Atikokan	America/Coral_Harbour
+Link	America/Argentina/Cordoba	America/Cordoba
+Link	America/Tijuana		America/Ensenada
+Link	America/Indiana/Indianapolis	America/Fort_Wayne
+Link	America/Indiana/Indianapolis	America/Indianapolis
+Link	America/Argentina/Jujuy	America/Jujuy
+Link	America/Indiana/Knox	America/Knox_IN
+Link	America/Kentucky/Louisville	America/Louisville
+Link	America/Argentina/Mendoza	America/Mendoza
+Link	America/Rio_Branco	America/Porto_Acre
+Link	America/Argentina/Cordoba	America/Rosario
+Link	America/St_Thomas	America/Virgin
+Link	Asia/Ashgabat		Asia/Ashkhabad
+Link	Asia/Chongqing		Asia/Chungking
+Link	Asia/Dhaka		Asia/Dacca
+Link	Asia/Kathmandu		Asia/Katmandu
+Link	Asia/Kolkata		Asia/Calcutta
+Link	Asia/Macau		Asia/Macao
+Link	Asia/Jerusalem		Asia/Tel_Aviv
+Link	Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh	Asia/Saigon
+Link	Asia/Thimphu		Asia/Thimbu
+Link	Asia/Makassar		Asia/Ujung_Pandang
+Link	Asia/Ulaanbaatar	Asia/Ulan_Bator
+Link	Atlantic/Faroe		Atlantic/Faeroe
+Link	Europe/Oslo		Atlantic/Jan_Mayen
+Link	Australia/Sydney	Australia/ACT
+Link	Australia/Sydney	Australia/Canberra
+Link	Australia/Lord_Howe	Australia/LHI
+Link	Australia/Sydney	Australia/NSW
+Link	Australia/Darwin	Australia/North
+Link	Australia/Brisbane	Australia/Queensland
+Link	Australia/Adelaide	Australia/South
+Link	Australia/Hobart	Australia/Tasmania
+Link	Australia/Melbourne	Australia/Victoria
+Link	Australia/Perth		Australia/West
+Link	Australia/Broken_Hill	Australia/Yancowinna
+Link	America/Rio_Branco	Brazil/Acre
+Link	America/Noronha		Brazil/DeNoronha
+Link	America/Sao_Paulo	Brazil/East
+Link	America/Manaus		Brazil/West
+Link	America/Halifax		Canada/Atlantic
+Link	America/Winnipeg	Canada/Central
+Link	America/Regina		Canada/East-Saskatchewan
+Link	America/Toronto		Canada/Eastern
+Link	America/Edmonton	Canada/Mountain
+Link	America/St_Johns	Canada/Newfoundland
+Link	America/Vancouver	Canada/Pacific
+Link	America/Regina		Canada/Saskatchewan
+Link	America/Whitehorse	Canada/Yukon
+Link	America/Santiago	Chile/Continental
+Link	Pacific/Easter		Chile/EasterIsland
+Link	America/Havana		Cuba
+Link	Africa/Cairo		Egypt
+Link	Europe/Dublin		Eire
+Link	Europe/London		Europe/Belfast
+Link	Europe/Chisinau		Europe/Tiraspol
+Link	Europe/London		GB
+Link	Europe/London		GB-Eire
+Link	Etc/GMT			GMT+0
+Link	Etc/GMT			GMT-0
+Link	Etc/GMT			GMT0
+Link	Etc/GMT			Greenwich
+Link	Asia/Hong_Kong		Hongkong
+Link	Atlantic/Reykjavik	Iceland
+Link	Asia/Tehran		Iran
+Link	Asia/Jerusalem		Israel
+Link	America/Jamaica		Jamaica
+Link	Asia/Tokyo		Japan
+Link	Pacific/Kwajalein	Kwajalein
+Link	Africa/Tripoli		Libya
+Link	America/Tijuana		Mexico/BajaNorte
+Link	America/Mazatlan	Mexico/BajaSur
+Link	America/Mexico_City	Mexico/General
+Link	Pacific/Auckland	NZ
+Link	Pacific/Chatham		NZ-CHAT
+Link	America/Denver		Navajo
+Link	Asia/Shanghai		PRC
+Link	Pacific/Pago_Pago	Pacific/Samoa
+Link	Pacific/Chuuk		Pacific/Yap
+Link	Pacific/Chuuk		Pacific/Truk
+Link	Pacific/Pohnpei		Pacific/Ponape
+Link	Europe/Warsaw		Poland
+Link	Europe/Lisbon		Portugal
+Link	Asia/Seoul		ROK
+Link	Asia/Singapore		Singapore
+Link	Europe/Istanbul		Turkey
+Link	Etc/UCT			UCT
+Link	America/Anchorage	US/Alaska
+Link	America/Adak		US/Aleutian
+Link	America/Phoenix		US/Arizona
+Link	America/Chicago		US/Central
+Link	America/Indiana/Indianapolis	US/East-Indiana
+Link	America/New_York	US/Eastern
+Link	Pacific/Honolulu	US/Hawaii
+Link	America/Indiana/Knox	US/Indiana-Starke
+Link	America/Detroit		US/Michigan
+Link	America/Denver		US/Mountain
+Link	America/Los_Angeles	US/Pacific
+Link	Pacific/Pago_Pago	US/Samoa
+Link	Etc/UTC			UTC
+Link	Etc/UTC			Universal
+Link	Europe/Moscow		W-SU
+Link	Etc/UTC			Zulu
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/components/timezone/continent.tab	Thu Aug 04 11:29:10 2011 +0530
@@ -0,0 +1,14 @@
+#
+# Copyright (c) 2001, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+#
+#
+Africa	Africa
+America	Americas
+Antarctica	Antarctica
+Arctic	Arctic Ocean
+Asia	Asia
+Atlantic	Atlantic Ocean
+Australia	Australia
+Europe	Europe
+Indian	Indian Ocean
+Pacific	Pacific Ocean
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/components/timezone/country.tab	Thu Aug 04 11:29:10 2011 +0530
@@ -0,0 +1,280 @@
+#
+# Copyright (c) 2001, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+#
+# ISO 3166 alpha-2 country codes
+#
+# @(#)iso3166.tab	8.5
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-09-27):
+#
+# This file contains a table with the following columns:
+# 1.  ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code, current as of
+#     ISO 3166-1 Newsletter VI-1 (2007-09-21).  See:
+#     <a href="http://www.iso.org/iso/en/prods-services/iso3166ma/index.html">
+#     ISO 3166 Maintenance agency (ISO 3166/MA)
+#     </a>.
+# 2.  The usual English name for the country,
+#     chosen so that alphabetic sorting of subsets produces helpful lists.
+#     This is not the same as the English name in the ISO 3166 tables.
+#
+# Columns are separated by a single tab.
+# The table is sorted by country code.
+#
+# Lines beginning with `#' are comments.
+#
+#country-
+#code	country name
+AD	Andorra
+AE	United Arab Emirates
+AF	Afghanistan
+AG	Antigua & Barbuda
+AI	Anguilla
+AL	Albania
+AM	Armenia
+AN	Netherlands Antilles
+AO	Angola
+AQ	Antarctica
+AR	Argentina
+AS	Samoa (American)
+AT	Austria
+AU	Australia
+AW	Aruba
+AX	Aaland Islands
+AZ	Azerbaijan
+BA	Bosnia & Herzegovina
+BB	Barbados
+BD	Bangladesh
+BE	Belgium
+BF	Burkina Faso
+BG	Bulgaria
+BH	Bahrain
+BI	Burundi
+BJ	Benin
+BL	St Barthelemy
+BM	Bermuda
+BN	Brunei
+BO	Bolivia
+BR	Brazil
+BS	Bahamas
+BT	Bhutan
+BV	Bouvet Island
+BW	Botswana
+BY	Belarus
+BZ	Belize
+CA	Canada
+CC	Cocos (Keeling) Islands
+CD	Congo (Dem. Rep.)
+CF	Central African Rep.
+CG	Congo (Rep.)
+CH	Switzerland
+CI	Cote d'Ivoire
+CK	Cook Islands
+CL	Chile
+CM	Cameroon
+CN	China
+CO	Colombia
+CR	Costa Rica
+CU	Cuba
+CV	Cape Verde
+CX	Christmas Island
+CY	Cyprus
+CZ	Czech Republic
+DE	Germany
+DJ	Djibouti
+DK	Denmark
+DM	Dominica
+DO	Dominican Republic
+DZ	Algeria
+EC	Ecuador
+EE	Estonia
+EG	Egypt
+EH	Western Sahara
+ER	Eritrea
+ES	Spain
+ET	Ethiopia
+FI	Finland
+FJ	Fiji
+FK	Falkland Islands
+FM	Micronesia
+FO	Faroe Islands
+FR	France
+GA	Gabon
+GB	Britain (UK)
+GD	Grenada
+GE	Georgia
+GF	French Guiana
+GG	Guernsey
+GH	Ghana
+GI	Gibraltar
+GL	Greenland
+GM	Gambia
+GN	Guinea
+GP	Guadeloupe
+GQ	Equatorial Guinea
+GR	Greece
+GS	South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands
+GT	Guatemala
+GU	Guam
+GW	Guinea-Bissau
+GY	Guyana
+HK	Hong Kong
+HM	Heard Island & McDonald Islands
+HN	Honduras
+HR	Croatia
+HT	Haiti
+HU	Hungary
+ID	Indonesia
+IE	Ireland
+IL	Israel
+IM	Isle of Man
+IN	India
+IO	British Indian Ocean Territory
+IQ	Iraq
+IR	Iran
+IS	Iceland
+IT	Italy
+JE	Jersey
+JM	Jamaica
+JO	Jordan
+JP	Japan
+KE	Kenya
+KG	Kyrgyzstan
+KH	Cambodia
+KI	Kiribati
+KM	Comoros
+KN	St Kitts & Nevis
+KP	Korea (North)
+KR	Korea (South)
+KW	Kuwait
+KY	Cayman Islands
+KZ	Kazakhstan
+LA	Laos
+LB	Lebanon
+LC	St Lucia
+LI	Liechtenstein
+LK	Sri Lanka
+LR	Liberia
+LS	Lesotho
+LT	Lithuania
+LU	Luxembourg
+LV	Latvia
+LY	Libya
+MA	Morocco
+MC	Monaco
+MD	Moldova
+ME	Montenegro
+MF	St Martin (French part)
+MG	Madagascar
+MH	Marshall Islands
+MK	Macedonia
+ML	Mali
+MM	Myanmar (Burma)
+MN	Mongolia
+MO	Macao
+MP	Northern Mariana Islands
+MQ	Martinique
+MR	Mauritania
+MS	Montserrat
+MT	Malta
+MU	Mauritius
+MV	Maldives
+MW	Malawi
+MX	Mexico
+MY	Malaysia
+MZ	Mozambique
+NA	Namibia
+NC	New Caledonia
+NE	Niger
+NF	Norfolk Island
+NG	Nigeria
+NI	Nicaragua
+NL	Netherlands
+NO	Norway
+NP	Nepal
+NR	Nauru
+NU	Niue
+NZ	New Zealand
+OM	Oman
+PA	Panama
+PE	Peru
+PF	French Polynesia
+PG	Papua New Guinea
+PH	Philippines
+PK	Pakistan
+PL	Poland
+PM	St Pierre & Miquelon
+PN	Pitcairn
+PR	Puerto Rico
+PS	Palestine
+PT	Portugal
+PW	Palau
+PY	Paraguay
+QA	Qatar
+RE	Reunion
+RO	Romania
+RS	Serbia
+RU	Russia
+RW	Rwanda
+SA	Saudi Arabia
+SB	Solomon Islands
+SC	Seychelles
+SD	Sudan
+SE	Sweden
+SG	Singapore
+SH	St Helena
+SI	Slovenia
+SJ	Svalbard & Jan Mayen
+SK	Slovakia
+SL	Sierra Leone
+SM	San Marino
+SN	Senegal
+SO	Somalia
+SR	Suriname
+ST	Sao Tome & Principe
+SV	El Salvador
+SY	Syria
+SZ	Swaziland
+TC	Turks & Caicos Is
+TD	Chad
+TF	French Southern & Antarctic Lands
+TG	Togo
+TH	Thailand
+TJ	Tajikistan
+TK	Tokelau
+TL	East Timor
+TM	Turkmenistan
+TN	Tunisia
+TO	Tonga
+TR	Turkey
+TT	Trinidad & Tobago
+TV	Tuvalu
+TW	Taiwan
+TZ	Tanzania
+UA	Ukraine
+UG	Uganda
+UM	US minor outlying islands
+US	United States
+UY	Uruguay
+UZ	Uzbekistan
+VA	Vatican City
+VC	St Vincent
+VE	Venezuela
+VG	Virgin Islands (UK)
+VI	Virgin Islands (US)
+VN	Vietnam
+VU	Vanuatu
+WF	Wallis & Futuna
+WS	Samoa (western)
+YE	Yemen
+YT	Mayotte
+ZA	South Africa
+ZM	Zambia
+ZW	Zimbabwe
+#
+# These entries support timezones for a region (groups of countries).
+#
+#country-
+#group	country-group name
+ee	Europe - Eastern
+me	Europe - Central
+we	Europe - Western
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/components/timezone/cr_Sun	Thu Aug 04 11:29:10 2011 +0530
@@ -0,0 +1,1 @@
+Copyright (c) 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/components/timezone/do_pofile.sh	Thu Aug 04 11:29:10 2011 +0530
@@ -0,0 +1,68 @@
+#! /bin/sh
+#
+# Copyright (c) 2001, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
+#
+
+#
+# Create messages file for zone_sun.tab, country.tab, continent.tab
+#
+AWK=/usr/bin/nawk
+ECHO=/usr/bin/echo
+
+ZONE_SUN_FILE=zone_sun.tab
+COUNTRY_FILE=country.tab
+CONTINENT_FILE=continent.tab
+
+DOMAIN=SUNW_OST_ZONEINFO
+
+$ECHO "domain \"$DOMAIN\""
+
+$ECHO "#"
+$ECHO "# These files are located in components/timezone."
+$ECHO "#"
+
+$ECHO "#"
+$ECHO "# continent.tab"
+$ECHO "#"
+
+# Get 2nd column of continent.tab file
+$AWK -F'\t' \
+	' 
+	/^#/ { next }
+	{ 
+		printf "msgid \"%s\"\n", $2 
+		printf "msgstr \"\"\n"
+	}
+	' < $CONTINENT_FILE
+
+$ECHO "#"
+$ECHO "# country.tab"
+$ECHO "#"
+
+# Get 2nd column of country.tab file
+$AWK -F'\t' \
+	' 
+	/^#/ { next }
+	{ 
+		printf "msgid \"%s\"\n", $2 
+		printf "msgstr \"\"\n"
+	}
+	' < $COUNTRY_FILE
+
+
+$ECHO "#"
+$ECHO "# zone.tab"
+$ECHO "#"
+
+# Get 5th column (if it exists) of zone_sun.tab file
+$AWK -F'\t' \
+	' 
+	/^#/ { next }
+	{ 
+		if (NF > 4) {
+			printf "msgid \"%s\"\n", $5 
+			printf "msgstr \"\"\n"
+		}
+	}
+	' < $ZONE_SUN_FILE
+
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/components/timezone/etcetera	Thu Aug 04 11:29:10 2011 +0530
@@ -0,0 +1,82 @@
+# <pre>
+# @(#)etcetera	8.3
+# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
+# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
+
+# These entries are mostly present for historical reasons, so that
+# people in areas not otherwise covered by the tz files could "zic -l"
+# to a time zone that was right for their area.  These days, the
+# tz files cover almost all the inhabited world, and the only practical
+# need now for the entries that are not on UTC are for ships at sea
+# that cannot use POSIX TZ settings.
+
+Zone	Etc/GMT		0	-	GMT
+Zone	Etc/UTC		0	-	UTC
+Zone	Etc/UCT		0	-	UCT
+
+# The following link uses older naming conventions,
+# but it belongs here, not in the file `backward',
+# as functions like gmtime load the "GMT" file to handle leap seconds properly.
+# We want this to work even on installations that omit the other older names.
+Link	Etc/GMT				GMT
+
+Link	Etc/UTC				Etc/Universal
+Link	Etc/UTC				Etc/Zulu
+
+Link	Etc/GMT				Etc/Greenwich
+Link	Etc/GMT				Etc/GMT-0
+Link	Etc/GMT				Etc/GMT+0
+Link	Etc/GMT				Etc/GMT0
+
+# We use POSIX-style signs in the Zone names and the output abbreviations,
+# even though this is the opposite of what many people expect.
+# POSIX has positive signs west of Greenwich, but many people expect
+# positive signs east of Greenwich.  For example, TZ='Etc/GMT+4' uses
+# the abbreviation "GMT+4" and corresponds to 4 hours behind UTC
+# (i.e. west of Greenwich) even though many people would expect it to
+# mean 4 hours ahead of UTC (i.e. east of Greenwich).
+#
+# In the draft 5 of POSIX 1003.1-200x, the angle bracket notation allows for
+# TZ='<GMT-4>+4'; if you want time zone abbreviations conforming to
+# ISO 8601 you can use TZ='<-0400>+4'.  Thus the commonly-expected
+# offset is kept within the angle bracket (and is used for display)
+# while the POSIX sign is kept outside the angle bracket (and is used
+# for calculation).
+#
+# Do not use a TZ setting like TZ='GMT+4', which is four hours behind
+# GMT but uses the completely misleading abbreviation "GMT".
+
+# Earlier incarnations of this package were not POSIX-compliant,
+# and had lines such as
+#		Zone	GMT-12		-12	-	GMT-1200
+# We did not want things to change quietly if someone accustomed to the old
+# way does a
+#		zic -l GMT-12
+# so we moved the names into the Etc subdirectory.
+
+Zone	Etc/GMT-14	14	-	GMT-14	# 14 hours ahead of GMT
+Zone	Etc/GMT-13	13	-	GMT-13
+Zone	Etc/GMT-12	12	-	GMT-12
+Zone	Etc/GMT-11	11	-	GMT-11
+Zone	Etc/GMT-10	10	-	GMT-10
+Zone	Etc/GMT-9	9	-	GMT-9
+Zone	Etc/GMT-8	8	-	GMT-8
+Zone	Etc/GMT-7	7	-	GMT-7
+Zone	Etc/GMT-6	6	-	GMT-6
+Zone	Etc/GMT-5	5	-	GMT-5
+Zone	Etc/GMT-4	4	-	GMT-4
+Zone	Etc/GMT-3	3	-	GMT-3
+Zone	Etc/GMT-2	2	-	GMT-2
+Zone	Etc/GMT-1	1	-	GMT-1
+Zone	Etc/GMT+1	-1	-	GMT+1
+Zone	Etc/GMT+2	-2	-	GMT+2
+Zone	Etc/GMT+3	-3	-	GMT+3
+Zone	Etc/GMT+4	-4	-	GMT+4
+Zone	Etc/GMT+5	-5	-	GMT+5
+Zone	Etc/GMT+6	-6	-	GMT+6
+Zone	Etc/GMT+7	-7	-	GMT+7
+Zone	Etc/GMT+8	-8	-	GMT+8
+Zone	Etc/GMT+9	-9	-	GMT+9
+Zone	Etc/GMT+10	-10	-	GMT+10
+Zone	Etc/GMT+11	-11	-	GMT+11
+Zone	Etc/GMT+12	-12	-	GMT+12
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/components/timezone/europe	Thu Aug 04 11:29:10 2011 +0530
@@ -0,0 +1,2755 @@
+# <pre>
+# @(#)europe	8.33
+# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
+# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
+
+# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
+# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
+# [email protected] for general use in the future).
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
+# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
+# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
+#
+# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
+# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
+# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
+# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
+# of the IATA's data after 1990.
+#
+# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
+# entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
+#
+# Other sources occasionally used include:
+#
+#	Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
+#	Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
+#	which I found in the UCLA library.
+#
+#	<a href="http://www.pettswoodvillage.co.uk/Daylight_Savings_William_Willett.pdf">
+#	William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
+#	</a> (1914-03)
+#
+#	Brazil's Departamento Servico da Hora (DSH),
+#	<a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm">
+#	History of Summer Time
+#	</a> (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
+
+#
+# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
+# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
+# Corrections are welcome!
+#                   std dst  2dst
+#                   LMT           Local Mean Time
+#       -4:00       AST ADT       Atlantic
+#       -3:00       WGT WGST      Western Greenland*
+#       -1:00       EGT EGST      Eastern Greenland*
+#        0:00       GMT BST  BDST Greenwich, British Summer
+#        0:00       GMT IST       Greenwich, Irish Summer
+#        0:00       WET WEST WEMT Western Europe
+#        0:19:32.13 AMT NST       Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)*
+#        0:20       NET NEST      Netherlands (1937-1940)*
+#        1:00       CET CEST CEMT Central Europe
+#        1:00:14    SET           Swedish (1879-1899)*
+#        2:00       EET EEST      Eastern Europe
+#        3:00       MSK MSD       Moscow
+#
+# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain,
+# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
+
+# From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),
+# The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
+# Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
+# Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
+# Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
+# Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
+# Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
+# entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
+# on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
+# referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
+# Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
+# ...
+# Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
+# I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
+# ...
+# There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
+# A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
+# national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
+# different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
+# in the Directive.
+
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
+
+# From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
+#
+# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
+# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
+# and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
+# of the text said:
+#
+# `An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
+# beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
+# was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
+# this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
+# made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
+# but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
+# along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
+#
+# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
+# position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longitude should
+# be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
+#
+# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
+#
+# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
+# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
+# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
+# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
+# and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
+# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
+# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
+# (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847-09-22 the
+# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
+# adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
+# The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
+# and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
+# railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public
+# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
+# on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
+# one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal
+# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
+# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
+# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
+# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
+#
+# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
+# transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01.  We don't know as much
+# about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2003-09-27):
+# Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915),
+# a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
+# who circulated a pamphlet ``The Waste of Daylight'' (1907)
+# that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
+# and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
+# A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
+# but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
+# Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and
+# it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.
+# See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18).
+# A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in
+# a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular
+# subscription and open to the public.  On the south face of the monolith,
+# designed by G. W. Miller, is the...William Willett Memorial Sundial,
+# which is permanently set to Summer Time.
+
+# From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):
+# It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of
+# summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country
+# between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which
+# plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the
+# foundations of civilization throughout the world.
+#	-- <a href="http://www.winstonchurchill.org/fh114willett.htm">
+#	"A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly
+#	</a>
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
+# The OED Supplement says that the English originally said ``Daylight Saving''
+# when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
+# term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
+# proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using ``Summer''.
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
+#
+# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
+# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
+
+# Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
+# From: Jonathan Leffler
+# [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
+# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
+# politics making a fortune, not computing.
+
+# From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
+# I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
+# acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time.  Look for the published
+# time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
+# if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."
+
+# From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):
+# ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the
+# main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)
+# agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).
+
+# From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):
+# On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir
+# Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any
+# official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't
+# but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British
+# Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally.
+# http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/bbc-19410418.png
+# http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/ho-19410421.png
+
+# From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):
+# [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time
+# which is to be introduced in May....
+# I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"
+# which could not be said to run counter to any official description.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
+# Howse writes (p 157) `DBST' too, but `BDST' seems to have been common
+# and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,
+# so we use `BDST'.
+
+# Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length
+# the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
+# Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
+# and extending this list, which can be found in
+# <a href="http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/">
+# History of legal time in Britain
+# </a>
+
+# From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
+#
+# The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
+# see Lord Tanlaw's speech
+# <a href="http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0">
+# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976)
+# </a>.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+#
+# For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.
+#
+# Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger
+# are incorrect:
+#     * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
+#	1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
+# Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
+#     * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
+# It actually just had one transition.
+#     * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.
+# Actually, it conformed to Britain.
+#     * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.
+# Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
+# Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
+#
+# Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:
+#     * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
+#	to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
+#	conform with Great Britain.
+# S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.
+#
+# The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;
+# we'll ignore it for now.
+#     * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.
+#
+#
+# Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than
+# Shanks & Pottenger.
+# Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory
+# (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was
+# to London.  For example:
+#
+#   "Timeball on the ballast office is down.  Dunsink time."
+#   -- James Joyce, Ulysses
+
+# From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
+# Irish laws are available online at www.irishstatutebook.ie.  These include
+# various relating to legal time, for example:
+#
+# ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
+#
+# ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html
+# ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html
+#
+# ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html
+# ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html
+# ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html
+#
+# ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html
+# ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html
+# ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html
+#
+# [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is
+# <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.]
+#
+# (These are those I found, but there could be more.  In any case these
+# should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover
+# the laws applicable in Ireland.)
+#
+# (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined
+# in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it
+# is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time
+# being GMT+1.)
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):
+# Clive Feather (<news:[email protected]>, 1997-03-31)
+# reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
+# (CT), equivalent to French civil time.
+# Julian Hill (<news:[email protected]>, 1998-09-30) reports that
+# trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)
+# and Frethun run in CT.
+# My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,
+# the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,
+# and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
+# If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,
+# I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.
+# This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.
+
+# From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
+# The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
+# which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive # 94/21/EC.
+# Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate
+# regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of
+# Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is
+# "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+# Summer Time Act, 1916
+Rule	GB-Eire	1916	only	-	May	21	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00s	0	GMT
+# S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
+Rule	GB-Eire	1917	only	-	Apr	 8	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1917	only	-	Sep	17	2:00s	0	GMT
+# S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
+Rule	GB-Eire	1918	only	-	Mar	24	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1918	only	-	Sep	30	2:00s	0	GMT
+# S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
+Rule	GB-Eire	1919	only	-	Mar	30	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1919	only	-	Sep	29	2:00s	0	GMT
+# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
+Rule	GB-Eire	1920	only	-	Mar	28	2:00s	1:00	BST
+# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
+Rule	GB-Eire	1920	only	-	Oct	25	2:00s	0	GMT
+# S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
+Rule	GB-Eire	1921	only	-	Apr	 3	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1921	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00s	0	GMT
+# S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
+Rule	GB-Eire	1922	only	-	Mar	26	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1922	only	-	Oct	 8	2:00s	0	GMT
+# The Summer Time Act, 1922
+Rule	GB-Eire	1923	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1923	1924	-	Sep	Sun>=16	2:00s	0	GMT
+Rule	GB-Eire	1924	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1925	1926	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
+# The Summer Time Act, 1925
+Rule	GB-Eire	1925	1938	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
+Rule	GB-Eire	1927	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1928	1929	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1930	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1931	1932	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1933	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1934	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1935	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1936	1937	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1938	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1939	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
+# S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
+Rule	GB-Eire	1939	only	-	Nov	Sun>=16	2:00s	0	GMT
+# S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
+Rule	GB-Eire	1940	only	-	Feb	Sun>=23	2:00s	1:00	BST
+# S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
+Rule	GB-Eire	1941	only	-	May	Sun>=2	1:00s	2:00	BDST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1941	1943	-	Aug	Sun>=9	1:00s	1:00	BST
+# S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
+Rule	GB-Eire	1942	1944	-	Apr	Sun>=2	1:00s	2:00	BDST
+# S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
+Rule	GB-Eire	1944	only	-	Sep	Sun>=16	1:00s	1:00	BST
+# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
+Rule	GB-Eire	1945	only	-	Apr	Mon>=2	1:00s	2:00	BDST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1945	only	-	Jul	Sun>=9	1:00s	1:00	BST
+# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
+Rule	GB-Eire	1945	1946	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
+Rule	GB-Eire	1946	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
+# The Summer Time Act, 1947
+Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Mar	16	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Apr	13	1:00s	2:00	BDST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Aug	10	1:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Nov	 2	2:00s	0	GMT
+# Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
+Rule	GB-Eire	1948	only	-	Mar	14	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1948	only	-	Oct	31	2:00s	0	GMT
+# Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
+Rule	GB-Eire	1949	only	-	Apr	 3	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1949	only	-	Oct	30	2:00s	0	GMT
+# Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
+# Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
+# Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
+Rule	GB-Eire	1950	1952	-	Apr	Sun>=14	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1950	1952	-	Oct	Sun>=21	2:00s	0	GMT
+# revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
+Rule	GB-Eire	1953	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1953	1960	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
+Rule	GB-Eire	1954	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1955	1956	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1957	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1958	1959	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1960	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
+# Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
+# Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
+# Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
+Rule	GB-Eire	1961	1963	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1961	1968	-	Oct	Sun>=23	2:00s	0	GMT
+# Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
+# Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
+# Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
+Rule	GB-Eire	1964	1967	-	Mar	Sun>=19	2:00s	1:00	BST
+# Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
+Rule	GB-Eire	1968	only	-	Feb	18	2:00s	1:00	BST
+# The British Standard Time Act, 1968
+#	(no summer time)
+# The Summer Time Act, 1972
+Rule	GB-Eire	1972	1980	-	Mar	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire	1972	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=23	2:00s	0	GMT
+# Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
+# Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
+# Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
+# Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
+Rule	GB-Eire	1981	1995	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00u	1:00	BST
+Rule	GB-Eire 1981	1989	-	Oct	Sun>=23	1:00u	0	GMT
+# Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
+# Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
+# Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
+Rule	GB-Eire 1990	1995	-	Oct	Sun>=22	1:00u	0	GMT
+# Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
+# See EU for rules starting in 1996.
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/London	-0:01:15 -	LMT	1847 Dec  1 0:00s
+			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1968 Oct 27
+			 1:00	-	BST	1971 Oct 31 2:00u
+			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1996
+			 0:00	EU	GMT/BST
+Link	Europe/London	Europe/Jersey
+Link	Europe/London	Europe/Guernsey
+Link	Europe/London	Europe/Isle_of_Man
+Zone	Europe/Dublin	-0:25:00 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2
+			-0:25:21 -	DMT	1916 May 21 2:00
+			-0:25:21 1:00	IST	1916 Oct  1 2:00s
+			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1921 Dec  6 # independence
+			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1940 Feb 25 2:00
+			 0:00	1:00	IST	1946 Oct  6 2:00
+			 0:00	-	GMT	1947 Mar 16 2:00
+			 0:00	1:00	IST	1947 Nov  2 2:00
+			 0:00	-	GMT	1948 Apr 18 2:00
+			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1968 Oct 27
+			 1:00	-	IST	1971 Oct 31 2:00u
+			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1996
+			 0:00	EU	GMT/IST
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# Europe
+
+# EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC,
+# Common Market, etc.
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	EU	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00u	1:00	S
+Rule	EU	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
+Rule	EU	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00u	0	-
+Rule	EU	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
+Rule	EU	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	1:00	S
+Rule	EU	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
+# The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002.  See:
+# <a="http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT">
+# Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
+# of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
+# </a>
+
+# W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
+Rule	W-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	W-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
+Rule	W-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00s	0	-
+Rule	W-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
+Rule	W-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	W-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
+
+# Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
+# From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
+Rule	C-Eur	1916	only	-	Apr	30	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	C-Eur	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	C-Eur	1917	1918	-	Apr	Mon>=15	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	C-Eur	1917	1918	-	Sep	Mon>=15	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	C-Eur	1940	only	-	Apr	 1	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	C-Eur	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	C-Eur	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	C-Eur	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	C-Eur	1944	1945	-	Apr	Mon>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
+# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	C-Eur	1944	only	-	Oct	 2	 2:00s	0	-
+# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
+#
+# I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s
+# in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
+# corrected in version 2008d). The circumstancial evidence is simply the
+# tz database itself, as seen below:
+#
+# Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15  0:01
+#    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16  3:00
+#
+# Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
+#    0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
+#
+# Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
+#    1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16  2:00s
+#
+# Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16  3:00 0 -
+# Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
+# Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
+#
+# The rule line to be changed is:
+#
+# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00 0 -
+#
+# It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on
+# 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time.  However there are no
+# countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items
+# affected are apparently these ficticious zones that translates acronyms
+# CET and MET:
+#
+# Zone CET  1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
+# Zone MET  1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
+#
+# It this is right then the corrected version would look like:
+#
+# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16  2:00s 0 -
+#
+# A small step for mankind though 8-)
+Rule	C-Eur	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	C-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	C-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	C-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	C-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	C-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	C-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
+
+# E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.
+Rule	E-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	E-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	E-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	E-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	E-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	E-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Jul	 1	23:00	1:00	MST	# Moscow Summer Time
+Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Dec	28	 0:00	0	MMT	# Moscow Mean Time
+Rule	Russia	1918	only	-	May	31	22:00	2:00	MDST	# Moscow Double Summer Time
+Rule	Russia	1918	only	-	Sep	16	 1:00	1:00	MST
+Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	May	31	23:00	2:00	MDST
+Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Jul	 1	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Aug	16	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Mar	20	23:00	2:00	M # Midsummer
+Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
+# Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
+Rule	Russia	1981	1984	-	Apr	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Russia	1981	1983	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
+# Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
+# Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
+Rule	Russia	1984	1991	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Russia	1985	1991	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
+#
+Rule	Russia	1992	only	-	Mar	lastSat	 23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Russia	1992	only	-	Sep	lastSat	 23:00	0	-
+Rule	Russia	1993	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Russia	1993	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Russia	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):
+# According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
+# signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.
+# According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
+# 
+# Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian): 
+# <a href="http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583">
+# http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
+# </a>
+# 
+# Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
+# <a href="http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html">
+# http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html
+# </a>
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
+# Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
+# to be standard.
+# At least for now, keep the "old" Russia rules for the benefit of Belarus.
+
+# These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	WET		0:00	EU	WE%sT
+Zone	CET		1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT
+Zone	MET		1:00	C-Eur	ME%sT
+Zone	EET		2:00	EU	EE%sT
+
+# Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
+# for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
+
+# From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
+# The official German names ... are
+#
+#	Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00
+#	Mitteleuropaeische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00
+#
+# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz ueber die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
+# 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
+# I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
+#
+#	Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
+#	Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
+#	Postfach 3345
+#	D-38023 Braunschweig
+#	phone: +49 531 592-0
+#
+# ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
+# department for time and frequency transmission.  He explained that the
+# PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
+#
+#	Central European Time (CET)         = UTC+01:00
+#	Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00
+
+
+# Albania
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Albania	1940	only	-	Jun	16	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Albania	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	3:00	0	-
+Rule	Albania	1943	only	-	Mar	29	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Albania	1943	only	-	Apr	10	3:00	0	-
+Rule	Albania	1974	only	-	May	 4	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Albania	1974	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Albania	1975	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Albania	1975	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Albania	1976	only	-	May	 2	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Albania	1976	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Albania	1977	only	-	May	 8	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Albania	1977	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Albania	1978	only	-	May	 6	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Albania	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Albania	1979	only	-	May	 5	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Albania	1979	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Albania	1980	only	-	May	 3	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Albania	1980	only	-	Oct	 4	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Albania	1981	only	-	Apr	26	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Albania	1981	only	-	Sep	27	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Albania	1982	only	-	May	 2	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Albania	1982	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Albania	1983	only	-	Apr	18	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Albania	1983	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Albania	1984	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Tirane	1:19:20 -	LMT	1914
+			1:00	-	CET	1940 Jun 16
+			1:00	Albania	CE%sT	1984 Jul
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Andorra
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Andorra	0:06:04 -	LMT	1901
+			0:00	-	WET	1946 Sep 30
+			1:00	-	CET	1985 Mar 31 2:00
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Austria
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
+# 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and
+# Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"
+# date of 1945-04-12 with no time.  For the 1980-04-06 transition
+# Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00.  Go with the BEV,
+# and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Austria	1920	only	-	Apr	 5	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Austria	1920	only	-	Sep	13	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Austria	1946	only	-	Apr	14	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Austria	1946	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Austria	1947	only	-	Apr	 6	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Austria	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Austria	1980	only	-	Apr	 6	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Austria	1980	only	-	Sep	28	0:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Vienna	1:05:20 -	LMT	1893 Apr
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1920
+			1:00	Austria	CE%sT	1940 Apr  1 2:00s
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00s
+			1:00	1:00	CEST	1945 Apr 12 2:00s
+			1:00	-	CET	1946
+			1:00	Austria	CE%sT	1981
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Belarus
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Minsk	1:50:16 -	LMT	1880
+			1:50	-	MMT	1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time
+			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
+			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jun 28
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Jul  3
+			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
+			3:00	-	MSK	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+			2:00	-	EET	1992 Mar 29 0:00s
+			2:00	1:00	EEST	1992 Sep 27 0:00s
+			2:00	Russia	EE%sT
+
+# Belgium
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
+# Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
+#	Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
+#	Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe annee, 1991
+#	(Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
+#	pp 8-9.
+# LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
+#	Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.
+# Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.
+# The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
+# Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
+#
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Belgium	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1918	1919	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Belgium	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1920	only	-	Oct	23	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Belgium	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1921	only	-	Oct	25	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Belgium	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1922	1927	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Belgium	1923	only	-	Apr	21	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1925	only	-	Apr	 4	23:00s	1:00	S
+# DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd
+# Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier),
+# to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15
+# changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT.
+Rule	Belgium	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1928	1938	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Belgium	1929	only	-	Apr	21	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1930	only	-	Apr	13	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1931	only	-	Apr	19	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1932	only	-	Apr	 3	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1933	only	-	Mar	26	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1934	only	-	Apr	 8	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1935	only	-	Mar	31	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1936	only	-	Apr	19	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1937	only	-	Apr	 4	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1938	only	-	Mar	27	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1939	only	-	Apr	16	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1939	only	-	Nov	19	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Belgium	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1944	only	-	Sep	17	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Belgium	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Belgium	1946	only	-	May	19	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Belgium	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	 2:00s	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Brussels	0:17:30 -	LMT	1880
+			0:17:30	-	BMT	1892 May  1 12:00 # Brussels MT
+			0:00	-	WET	1914 Nov  8
+			1:00	-	CET	1916 May  1  0:00
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918 Nov 11 11:00u
+			0:00	Belgium	WE%sT	1940 May 20  2:00s
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep  3
+			1:00	Belgium	CE%sT	1977
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Bosnia and Herzegovina
+# see Serbia
+
+# Bulgaria
+#
+# From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
+# A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says:
+# EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
+# EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
+#
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Bulg	1979	only	-	Mar	31	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Bulg	1979	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Bulg	1980	1982	-	Apr	Sat>=1	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Bulg	1980	only	-	Sep	29	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Bulg	1981	only	-	Sep	27	 2:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Sofia	1:33:16 -	LMT	1880
+			1:56:56	-	IMT	1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
+			2:00	-	EET	1942 Nov  2  3:00
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
+			1:00	-	CET	1945 Apr 2 3:00
+			2:00	-	EET	1979 Mar 31 23:00
+			2:00	Bulg	EE%sT	1982 Sep 26  2:00
+			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1991
+			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1997
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT
+
+# Croatia
+# see Serbia
+
+# Cyprus
+# Please see the `asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.
+
+# Czech Republic
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Czech	1945	only	-	Apr	 8	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Czech	1945	only	-	Nov	18	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Czech	1946	only	-	May	 6	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Czech	1946	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Czech	1947	only	-	Apr	20	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Czech	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Czech	1949	only	-	Apr	 9	2:00s	1:00	S
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Prague	0:57:44 -	LMT	1850
+			0:57:44	-	PMT	1891 Oct     # Prague Mean Time
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep 17 2:00s
+			1:00	Czech	CE%sT	1979
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
+
+# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
+# http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
+# [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
+# The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
+# confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.
+#
+# The EU treaty with effect from 1973:
+# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
+#
+# This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
+# in subsequenet decrees with the law
+# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
+#
+# It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980.  I have
+# not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST
+# changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to
+# 1980-09-28 at 02:00.  If this is true, this differs slightly from
+# the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00.  We don't know
+# when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only
+# confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981:
+# The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning
+# working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which
+# was suspended on that night):
+# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL
+
+# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
+# The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
+# Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):
+# Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not
+# wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Denmark	1916	only	-	May	14	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Denmark	1916	only	-	Sep	30	23:00	0	-
+Rule	Denmark	1940	only	-	May	15	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Denmark	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Denmark	1945	only	-	Aug	15	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Denmark	1946	only	-	May	 1	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Denmark	1946	only	-	Sep	 1	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Denmark	1947	only	-	May	 4	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Denmark	1947	only	-	Aug	10	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Denmark	1948	only	-	May	 9	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Denmark	1948	only	-	Aug	 8	 2:00s	0	-
+#
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Copenhagen	 0:50:20 -	LMT	1890
+			 0:50:20 -	CMT	1894 Jan  1 # Copenhagen MT
+			 1:00	Denmark	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2 2:00s
+			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00
+			 1:00	Denmark	CE%sT	1980
+			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
+Zone Atlantic/Faroe	-0:27:04 -	LMT	1908 Jan 11	# Torshavn
+			 0:00	-	WET	1981
+			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):
+# During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in
+# East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.
+# My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,
+# and left the EU on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU
+# rules at least through 1984.  Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthab
+# used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
+# rules since at least 1991.  Assume EU rules since 1980.
+
+# From Gwillin Law (2001-06-06), citing
+# <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),
+# and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:
+#
+# Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC
+# is according to the following time line:
+#
+# The military zone near Thule	UTC-4
+# Standard Greenland time	UTC-3
+# Scoresbysund			UTC-1
+# Danmarkshavn			UTC
+#
+# In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be
+# introduced.
+
+# From Rives McDow (2001-11-01):
+#
+# I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at
+# the time to clarify the situation in Thule.  Unfortunately, I have
+# not heard back from them regarding my recent letter.  [But I have
+# info from earlier correspondence.]
+#
+# According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule
+# Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight
+# savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time....
+#
+# The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund
+# uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst.
+# There are just a few stations on this coast, including the
+# Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th
+# email.  The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in
+# Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the
+# DPC research station at Zackenberg.
+#
+# Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
+# the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthab).
+#
+# The rest of Greenland, including Godthab (this area, although it
+# includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time
+# UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.
+#
+# It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and
+# North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators
+# maintaining traffic in these areas.  However, the official status of
+# this area is that it sticks with Godthab time.  This area might be
+# considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.
+
+# From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):
+# I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place
+# there at 2:00 AM.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
+# the 1995 map as like Godthab.
+# For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthab before 1996.
+# startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
+# so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
+# For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
+#
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Thule	1991	1992	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Thule	1991	1992	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Thule	1993	2006	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Thule	1993	2006	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
+Rule	Thule	2007	max	-	Mar	Sun>=8	2:00	1:00	D
+Rule	Thule	2007	max	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S
+#
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28
+			-3:00	-	WGT	1980 Apr  6 2:00
+			-3:00	EU	WG%sT	1996
+			0:00	-	GMT
+Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
+			-2:00	-	CGT	1980 Apr  6 2:00
+			-2:00	C-Eur	CG%sT	1981 Mar 29
+			-1:00	EU	EG%sT
+Zone America/Godthab	-3:26:56 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
+			-3:00	-	WGT	1980 Apr  6 2:00
+			-3:00	EU	WG%sT
+Zone America/Thule	-4:35:08 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
+			-4:00	Thule	A%sT
+
+# Estonia
+# From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):
+# A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
+# [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
+# a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
+#
+# From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):
+# [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,
+# but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
+# ``I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
+# (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules
+# conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....
+# A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on
+# human physiology.  It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
+# summer time next spring.''
+
+# From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
+# <a href="http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390">
+# The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
+# </a>
+# refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
+# the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22--27, 120).
+#
+# I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
+# for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
+# (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
+
+# From <a href="http://www.baltictimes.com/">The Baltic Times</a> (1999-09-09)
+# via Steffen Thorsen:
+# This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
+# a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
+# But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
+# Union are still unclear.  In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
+# for all member states until 2001.  Brussels has yet to decide what to do
+# after that.
+
+# From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
+# Regulation no. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
+# no. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
+# the year round.  The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
+
+# From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):
+# The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
+# Now we are using again EU rules.
+#
+# From Urmet Jaanes (2002-03-28):
+# The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Tallinn	1:39:00	-	LMT	1880
+			1:39:00	-	TMT	1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1919 Jul
+			1:39:00	-	TMT	1921 May
+			2:00	-	EET	1940 Aug  6
+			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Sep 15
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep 22
+			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar 26 2:00s
+			2:00	1:00	EEST	1989 Sep 24 2:00s
+			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1998 Sep 22
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT	1999 Nov  1
+			2:00	-	EET	2002 Feb 21
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT
+
+# Finland
+
+# From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
+# Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
+# and it's supposed to change at 4am...
+
+# From Janne Snabb (2010-0715):
+#
+# I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982.
+# During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour
+# earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made
+# according to the central European standards.
+#
+# This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac
+# Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in
+# Finnish) at
+#
+# <a href="http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf">
+# http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf
+# </a>
+#
+# Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings
+# transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.
+#
+# This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at:
+#
+# <a href="http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401">
+# http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401
+# </a>
+#
+# The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not
+# exist tonight."
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Apr	3	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Oct	3	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Finland	1981	1982	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Finland	1981	1982	-	Sep	lastSun	3:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Helsinki	1:39:52 -	LMT	1878 May 31
+			1:39:52	-	HMT	1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
+			2:00	Finland	EE%sT	1983
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT
+
+# Aaland Is
+Link	Europe/Helsinki	Europe/Mariehamn
+
+
+# France
+
+# From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
+#
+# Henri Le Corre, Regimes Horaires pour le monde entier, Editions
+# Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
+#
+# Gabriel, Traite de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Tredaniel editeur,
+# Paris, 1991
+#
+# Francoise Gauquelin, Problemes de l'heure resolus en astrologie,
+# Guy tredaniel, Paris 1987
+
+
+#
+# Shank & Pottenger seem to use `24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	France	1916	only	-	Jun	14	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1916	1919	-	Oct	Sun>=1	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	France	1917	only	-	Mar	24	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1920	only	-	Oct	23	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	France	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1921	only	-	Oct	25	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	France	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	S
+# DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st
+# Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions
+# were Apr 12 and Oct 5.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	France	1922	1938	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	France	1923	only	-	May	26	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1925	only	-	Apr	 4	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1930	only	-	Apr	12	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1931	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1932	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1933	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1934	only	-	Apr	 7	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1935	only	-	Mar	30	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1936	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1937	only	-	Apr	 3	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1938	only	-	Mar	26	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1939	only	-	Nov	18	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	France	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00	1:00	S
+# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger
+# write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
+# Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arneguy, Orthez,
+# Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamotte-Montravel, Marouil, La
+# Rochefoucault, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Decartes,
+# Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
+# Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalons-sur-Saone, Arbois,
+# Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collognes (Haute-Savioe).
+Rule	France	1941	only	-	May	 5	 0:00	2:00	M # Midsummer
+# Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
+# but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
+# who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
+# as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
+Rule	France	1941	only	-	Oct	 6	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1942	only	-	Mar	 9	 0:00	2:00	M
+Rule	France	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 3:00	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00	2:00	M
+Rule	France	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 3:00	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1944	only	-	Apr	 3	 2:00	2:00	M
+Rule	France	1944	only	-	Oct	 8	 1:00	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00	2:00	M
+Rule	France	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 3:00	0	-
+# Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
+# go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
+Rule	France	1976	only	-	Mar	28	 1:00	1:00	S
+Rule	France	1976	only	-	Sep	26	 1:00	0	-
+# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
+# but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
+# Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
+# on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Paris	0:09:21 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15  0:01
+			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11  0:01  # Paris MT
+# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
+			0:00	France	WE%sT	1940 Jun 14 23:00
+# Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
+# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug 25
+			0:00	France	WE%sT	1945 Sep 16  3:00
+			1:00	France	CE%sT	1977
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Germany
+
+# From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
+# The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
+# Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
+# [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]
+
+# From Joerg Schilling (2002-10-23):
+# In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
+# <a href="http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/">
+# General [Nikolai] Bersarin</a>.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
+# <a href="http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf">
+# http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
+# </a>
+# says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.
+# However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
+# this was equivalent to CEMT (GMT+3), not GMT+4.
+
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Germany	1946	only	-	Apr	14	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Germany	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Germany	1947	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+# http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
+# occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.
+# Go with the PTB.
+Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	Apr	 6	3:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	May	11	2:00s	2:00	M
+Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	Jun	29	3:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Germany	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Germany	1949	only	-	Apr	10	2:00s	1:00	S
+
+Rule SovietZone	1945	only	-	May	24	2:00	2:00	M # Midsummer
+Rule SovietZone	1945	only	-	Sep	24	3:00	1:00	S
+Rule SovietZone	1945	only	-	Nov	18	2:00s	0	-
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Berlin	0:53:28 -	LMT	1893 Apr
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 May 24 2:00
+			1:00 SovietZone	CE%sT	1946
+			1:00	Germany	CE%sT	1980
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Georgia
+# Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
+# Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
+# is in Europe.  Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
+
+# Gibraltar
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Gibraltar	-0:21:24 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2 0:00s
+			0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1957 Apr 14 2:00
+			1:00	-	CET	1982
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Greece
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+# Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Greece	1932	only	-	Jul	 7	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Greece	1932	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	-
+# Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Greece	1941	only	-	Apr	 7	0:00	1:00	S
+# Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Greece	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	3:00	0	-
+Rule	Greece	1943	only	-	Mar	30	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Greece	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	0:00	0	-
+# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Greece	1952	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Greece	1952	only	-	Nov	 2	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Greece	1975	only	-	Apr	12	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Greece	1975	only	-	Nov	26	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Greece	1976	only	-	Apr	11	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Greece	1976	only	-	Oct	10	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Greece	1977	1978	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Greece	1977	only	-	Sep	26	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Greece	1978	only	-	Sep	24	4:00	0	-
+Rule	Greece	1979	only	-	Apr	 1	9:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Greece	1979	only	-	Sep	29	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Greece	1980	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Greece	1980	only	-	Sep	28	0:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Athens	1:34:52 -	LMT	1895 Sep 14
+			1:34:52	-	AMT	1916 Jul 28 0:01     # Athens MT
+			2:00	Greece	EE%sT	1941 Apr 30
+			1:00	Greece	CE%sT	1944 Apr  4
+			2:00	Greece	EE%sT	1981
+			# Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
+			# go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT
+
+# Hungary
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Hungary	1918	only	-	Apr	 1	 3:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Hungary	1918	only	-	Sep	29	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Hungary	1919	only	-	Apr	15	 3:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Hungary	1919	only	-	Sep	15	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Hungary	1920	only	-	Apr	 5	 3:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Hungary	1920	only	-	Sep	30	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Hungary	1945	only	-	May	 1	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Hungary	1945	only	-	Nov	 3	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Hungary	1946	only	-	Mar	31	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Hungary	1946	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Hungary	1947	1949	-	Apr	Sun>=4	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Hungary	1950	only	-	Apr	17	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Hungary	1950	only	-	Oct	23	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Hungary	1954	1955	-	May	23	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Hungary	1954	1955	-	Oct	 3	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Hungary	1956	only	-	Jun	Sun>=1	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Hungary	1956	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Hungary	1957	only	-	Jun	Sun>=1	 1:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Hungary	1957	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Hungary	1980	only	-	Apr	 6	 1:00	1:00	S
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Budapest	1:16:20 -	LMT	1890 Oct
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918
+			1:00	Hungary	CE%sT	1941 Apr  6  2:00
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
+			1:00	Hungary	CE%sT	1980 Sep 28  2:00s
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Iceland
+#
+# From Adam David (1993-11-06):
+# The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
+#
+# (1993-12-05):
+# This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
+# Iceland Almanak.
+#
+# From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
+# behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
+# of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
+# was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
+#
+# "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
+# of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
+# time the norsemen first settled Iceland.  The first day of winter is always
+# Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
+#
+# (1993-12-10):
+# I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
+# beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
+# to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
+#	the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
+#	(old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
+# St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
+# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
+# might mean something else (???).
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# The Iceland Almanak, Shanks & Pottenger, and Whitman disagree on many points.
+# We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks & Pottenger, namely
+# that Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.
+#
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Iceland	1917	1918	-	Feb	19	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Iceland	1917	only	-	Oct	21	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Iceland	1918	only	-	Nov	16	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Iceland	1939	only	-	Apr	29	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Iceland	1939	only	-	Nov	29	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Iceland	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Iceland	1940	only	-	Nov	 3	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Iceland	1941	only	-	Mar	 2	 1:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Iceland	1941	only	-	Nov	 2	 1:00s	0	-
+Rule	Iceland	1942	only	-	Mar	 8	 1:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Iceland	1942	only	-	Oct	25	 1:00s	0	-
+# 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
+Rule	Iceland	1943	1946	-	Mar	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Iceland	1943	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00s	0	-
+# 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
+Rule	Iceland	1947	1967	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	S
+# 1949 Oct transition delayed by 1 week
+Rule	Iceland	1949	only	-	Oct	30	 1:00s	0	-
+Rule	Iceland	1950	1966	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00s	0	-
+Rule	Iceland	1967	only	-	Oct	29	 1:00s	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik	-1:27:24 -	LMT	1837
+			-1:27:48 -	RMT	1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time?
+			-1:00	Iceland	IS%sT	1968 Apr 7 1:00s
+			 0:00	-	GMT
+
+# Italy
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
+# Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,
+# called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
+# During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
+# But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
+# so record only the time in Rome.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and
+# F. Pollastri
+# <a href="http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html">
+# Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03)
+# </a>
+# (`FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute
+# publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:
+#
+# year	FP	Shanks&P. (S)	Whitman (W)	Go with:
+# 1916	06-03	06-03 24:00	06-03 00:00	FP & W
+#	09-30	09-30 24:00	09-30 01:00	FP; guess 24:00s
+# 1917	04-01	03-31 24:00	03-31 00:00	FP & S
+#	09-30	09-29 24:00	09-30 01:00	FP & W
+# 1918	03-09	03-09 24:00	03-09 00:00	FP & S
+#	10-06	10-05 24:00	10-06 01:00	FP & W
+# 1919	03-01	03-01 24:00	03-01 00:00	FP & S
+#	10-04	10-04 24:00	10-04 01:00	FP; guess 24:00s
+# 1920	03-20	03-20 24:00	03-20 00:00	FP & S
+#	09-18	09-18 24:00	10-01 01:00	FP; guess 24:00s
+# 1944	04-02	04-03 02:00			S (see C-Eur)
+#	09-16	10-02 03:00			FP; guess 24:00s
+# 1945	09-14	09-16 24:00			FP; guess 24:00s
+# 1970	05-21	05-31 00:00			S
+#	09-20	09-27 00:00			S
+#
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Italy	1916	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1917	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1917	only	-	Sep	30	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1918	only	-	Mar	10	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1918	1919	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1919	only	-	Mar	 2	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1920	only	-	Mar	21	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1920	only	-	Sep	19	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1940	only	-	Jun	15	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1944	only	-	Sep	17	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1945	only	-	Sep	15	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1946	only	-	Mar	17	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1946	only	-	Oct	 6	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1947	only	-	Mar	16	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1947	only	-	Oct	 5	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1948	only	-	Feb	29	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1948	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1966	1968	-	May	Sun>=22	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1966	1969	-	Sep	Sun>=22	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1969	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1970	only	-	May	31	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1970	only	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1971	1972	-	May	Sun>=22	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1971	only	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1972	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1973	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1973	1974	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1974	only	-	May	26	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1975	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1975	1977	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1976	only	-	May	30	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1977	1979	-	May	Sun>=22	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Italy	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Italy	1979	only	-	Sep	30	0:00s	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Rome	0:49:56 -	LMT	1866 Sep 22
+			0:49:56	-	RMT	1893 Nov  1 0:00s # Rome Mean
+			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2 2:00s
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Jul
+			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1980
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+Link	Europe/Rome	Europe/Vatican
+Link	Europe/Rome	Europe/San_Marino
+
+# Latvia
+
+# From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):
+
+# I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
+# of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
+# correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
+# changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
+#
+# Act No.35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
+# according to the Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
+# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
+# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
+# and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
+#
+# Act No.592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
+# according to the Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
+# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
+# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
+# (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
+# September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
+#
+# Act No.81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
+# according to the Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
+# ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
+# Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
+# time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
+# transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
+# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward.  The end of
+# daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
+# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
+# 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
+#
+# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
+# 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
+# daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.
+
+# From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
+# This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
+# <a href="http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm">
+# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
+# 29-Feb-2000 (#79)</a>, in Latvian for subscribers only).
+
+# <a href="http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html">
+# From RFE/RL Newsline (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
+# </a>
+# The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
+# institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
+# Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
+# clocks one hour in the spring....
+# Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvitis noted that Latvia had too few
+# daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
+# Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
+# time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
+# urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it
+# appears that they will not do so....
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Latvia	1989	1996	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Latvia	1989	1996	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Riga	1:36:24	-	LMT	1880
+			1:36:24	-	RMT	1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time
+			1:36:24	1:00	LST	1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer
+			1:36:24	-	RMT	1919 Apr  1 2:00
+			1:36:24	1:00	LST	1919 May 22 3:00
+			1:36:24	-	RMT	1926 May 11
+			2:00	-	EET	1940 Aug  5
+			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jul
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct 13
+			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s
+			2:00	1:00	EEST	1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s
+			2:00	Latvia	EE%sT	1997 Jan 21
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2000 Feb 29
+			2:00	-	EET	2001 Jan  2
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT
+
+# Liechtenstein
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Vaduz	0:38:04 -	LMT	1894 Jun
+			1:00	-	CET	1981
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Lithuania
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
+# IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
+# known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
+
+# From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):
+# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
+# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
+
+# From <a href="http://www.elta.lt/">ELTA</a> No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29),
+# via Steffen Thorsen:
+# Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
+# to be valid here starting from October 31,
+# as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
+# The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
+# motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
+# already done by Estonia.
+
+# From the <a href="http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm">
+# Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
+# </a> (2000-03-27): Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
+
+# From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
+# As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
+# observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid
+# down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its
+# neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
+# 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
+# http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
+
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Vilnius	1:41:16	-	LMT	1880
+			1:24:00	-	WMT	1917	    # Warsaw Mean Time
+			1:35:36	-	KMT	1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
+			1:00	-	CET	1920 Jul 12
+			2:00	-	EET	1920 Oct  9
+			1:00	-	CET	1940 Aug  3
+			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jun 24
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug
+			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1998
+			2:00	-	EET	1998 Mar 29 1:00u
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT	1999 Oct 31 1:00u
+			2:00	-	EET	2003 Jan  1
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT
+
+# Luxembourg
+# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;
+# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Lux	1916	only	-	May	14	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lux	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Lux	1917	only	-	Apr	28	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lux	1917	only	-	Sep	17	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Lux	1918	only	-	Apr	Mon>=15	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Lux	1918	only	-	Sep	Mon>=15	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Lux	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lux	1919	only	-	Oct	 5	 3:00	0	-
+Rule	Lux	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lux	1920	only	-	Oct	24	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Lux	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lux	1921	only	-	Oct	26	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Lux	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lux	1922	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Lux	1923	only	-	Apr	21	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lux	1923	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 2:00	0	-
+Rule	Lux	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lux	1924	1928	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Lux	1925	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lux	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lux	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lux	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Lux	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00	1:00	S
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Luxembourg	0:24:36 -	LMT	1904 Jun
+			1:00	Lux	CE%sT	1918 Nov 25
+			0:00	Lux	WE%sT	1929 Oct  6 2:00s
+			0:00	Belgium	WE%sT	1940 May 14 3:00
+			1:00	C-Eur	WE%sT	1944 Sep 18 3:00
+			1:00	Belgium	CE%sT	1977
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Macedonia
+# see Serbia
+
+# Malta
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Malta	1973	only	-	Mar	31	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Malta	1973	only	-	Sep	29	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Malta	1974	only	-	Apr	21	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Malta	1974	only	-	Sep	16	0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Malta	1975	1979	-	Apr	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Malta	1975	1980	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00	0	-
+Rule	Malta	1980	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	S
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Malta	0:58:04 -	LMT	1893 Nov  2 0:00s # Valletta
+			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2 2:00s
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00s
+			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1973 Mar 31
+			1:00	Malta	CE%sT	1981
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Moldova
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write
+# that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.
+# However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence
+# on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).
+# In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area
+# and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
+# But [two people] separately reported via
+# Jesper Norgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
+# The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Chisinau	1:55:20 -	LMT	1880
+			1:55	-	CMT	1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
+			1:44:24	-	BMT	1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
+			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1940 Aug 15
+			2:00	1:00	EEST	1941 Jul 17
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug 24
+			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
+			3:00	-	MSK	1990 May 6
+			2:00	-	EET	1991
+			2:00	Russia	EE%sT	1992
+			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1997
+# See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT
+
+# Monaco
+# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
+# more precise 0:09:21.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Monaco	0:29:32 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15
+			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
+			0:00	France	WE%sT	1945 Sep 16 3:00
+			1:00	France	CE%sT	1977
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Montenegro
+# see Serbia
+
+# Netherlands
+
+# Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
+# but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
+
+# However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01):
+# Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00
+# Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including
+# the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time
+# (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the
+# common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was
+# not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law.
+# On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and
+# was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd").
+#
+# (2001-04-08):
+# 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to
+# observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common
+# practice of following Amsterdam mean time.
+#
+# (2001-04-09):
+# In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the
+# municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe
+# Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was
+# actually followed.
+#
+# From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to
+# observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of
+# Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most
+# places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically
+# adopted Amsterdam mean time.
+#
+# Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety
+# of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it
+# was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe
+# Amsterdam mean time.
+
+# The data before 1945 are taken from
+# <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm>.
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Neth	1916	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	NST	# Netherlands Summer Time
+Rule	Neth	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	AMT	# Amsterdam Mean Time
+Rule	Neth	1917	only	-	Apr	16	2:00s	1:00	NST
+Rule	Neth	1917	only	-	Sep	17	2:00s	0	AMT
+Rule	Neth	1918	1921	-	Apr	Mon>=1	2:00s	1:00	NST
+Rule	Neth	1918	1921	-	Sep	lastMon	2:00s	0	AMT
+Rule	Neth	1922	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	NST
+Rule	Neth	1922	1936	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	AMT
+Rule	Neth	1923	only	-	Jun	Fri>=1	2:00s	1:00	NST
+Rule	Neth	1924	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	NST
+Rule	Neth	1925	only	-	Jun	Fri>=1	2:00s	1:00	NST
+# From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week
+# in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
+Rule	Neth	1926	1931	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	NST
+Rule	Neth	1932	only	-	May	22	2:00s	1:00	NST
+Rule	Neth	1933	1936	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	NST
+Rule	Neth	1937	only	-	May	22	2:00s	1:00	NST
+Rule	Neth	1937	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Neth	1937	1939	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Neth	1938	1939	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Neth	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Neth	1945	only	-	Sep	16	2:00s	0	-
+#
+# Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted
+# below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Amsterdam	0:19:32 -	LMT	1835
+			0:19:32	Neth	%s	1937 Jul  1
+			0:20	Neth	NE%sT	1940 May 16 0:00 # Dutch Time
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00
+			1:00	Neth	CE%sT	1977
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Norway
+# http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &
+# Pottenger.
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Norway	1916	only	-	May	22	1:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Norway	1916	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Norway	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Norway	1945	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Norway	1959	1964	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Norway	1959	1965	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Norway	1965	only	-	Apr	25	2:00s	1:00	S
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Oslo	0:43:00 -	LMT	1895 Jan  1
+			1:00	Norway	CE%sT	1940 Aug 10 23:00
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  2:00
+			1:00	Norway	CE%sT	1980
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Svalbard & Jan Mayen
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):
+# Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and
+# Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the
+# time they were declared as parts of Norway.  Svalbard was declared
+# as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
+# Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
+# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html and
+# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html).  The law/regulation
+# for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
+# into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
+# part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
+# http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html ) I have not been
+# able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
+# before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabitated" since 1921 by
+# Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever
+# since 1921.  Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since
+# before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere
+# between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-01):
+#
+# Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,
+# so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was
+# keeping Berlin time.
+#
+# <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
+# burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in
+# 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
+# frequent air ttacks from Germans.  In 1943 the Americans established a
+# radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City".  Possibly
+# the UTC offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
+# Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.
+#
+# Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an
+# Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says
+# <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>).  The Svalbard FAQ
+# <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were
+# expelled on 1942-05-14.  However, small parties of Germans did return,
+# and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)
+# <http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html>
+# the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named
+# Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.
+#
+# All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970.  Unless we can
+# come up with more definitive info about the timekeeping during the
+# war years it's probably best just do...the following for now:
+Link	Europe/Oslo	Arctic/Longyearbyen
+
+# Poland
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Poland	1918	1919	-	Sep	16	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Poland	1919	only	-	Apr	15	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Poland	1944	only	-	Apr	 3	2:00s	1:00	S
+# Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Poland	1944	only	-	Oct	 4	2:00	0	-
+# For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Poland	1945	only	-	Apr	29	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Poland	1945	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	-
+# For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
+# Torun Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
+# <http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1>
+# Thanks to Przemyslaw Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
+# He also gives these further references:
+# Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
+# Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
+Rule	Poland	1946	only	-	Apr	14	0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Poland	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Poland	1947	only	-	May	 4	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Poland	1947	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Poland	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Poland	1949	only	-	Apr	10	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Poland	1957	only	-	Jun	 2	1:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Poland	1957	1958	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
+Rule	Poland	1958	only	-	Mar	30	1:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Poland	1959	only	-	May	31	1:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Poland	1959	1961	-	Oct	Sun>=1	1:00s	0	-
+Rule	Poland	1960	only	-	Apr	 3	1:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Poland	1961	1964	-	May	lastSun	1:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Poland	1962	1964	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Warsaw	1:24:00 -	LMT	1880
+			1:24:00	-	WMT	1915 Aug  5   # Warsaw Mean Time
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918 Sep 16 3:00
+			2:00	Poland	EE%sT	1922 Jun
+			1:00	Poland	CE%sT	1940 Jun 23 2:00
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct
+			1:00	Poland	CE%sT	1977
+			1:00	W-Eur	CE%sT	1988
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Portugal
+#
+# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):
+# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
+# (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
+#
+# Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
+# that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
+# The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):
+# IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions
+# at 02:00u, not 01:00u.  Assume that these are typos.
+# IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.
+# IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.
+# Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal
+# harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.
+#
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+# DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not
+# done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.
+# Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Port	1916	only	-	Jun	17	23:00	1:00	S
+# Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Port	1916	only	-	Nov	 1	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Port	1917	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1917	1921	-	Oct	14	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Port	1918	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1919	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1920	only	-	Feb	29	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1921	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1924	only	-	Apr	16	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1924	only	-	Oct	14	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Port	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1926	1929	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Port	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1931	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
+# Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Port	1931	1932	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Port	1932	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1934	only	-	Apr	 7	23:00s	1:00	S
+# Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Port	1934	1938	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
+# Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
+Rule	Port	1935	only	-	Mar	30	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1936	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
+# Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Port	1937	only	-	Apr	 3	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1938	only	-	Mar	26	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
+# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Port	1939	only	-	Nov	18	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Port	1940	only	-	Feb	24	23:00s	1:00	S
+# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
+Rule	Port	1940	1941	-	Oct	 5	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Port	1941	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1942	1945	-	Mar	Sat>=8	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1942	only	-	Apr	25	22:00s	2:00	M # Midsummer
+Rule	Port	1942	only	-	Aug	15	22:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1942	1945	-	Oct	Sat>=24	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Port	1943	only	-	Apr	17	22:00s	2:00	M
+Rule	Port	1943	1945	-	Aug	Sat>=25	22:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1944	1945	-	Apr	Sat>=21	22:00s	2:00	M
+Rule	Port	1946	only	-	Apr	Sat>=1	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1946	only	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Port	1947	1949	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1947	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
+# Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
+# Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Port	1951	1965	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1951	1965	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Port	1977	only	-	Mar	27	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1977	only	-	Sep	25	 0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Port	1978	1979	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Port	1979	1982	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
+Rule	Port	1980	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1981	1982	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Port	1983	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+# Shanks & Pottenger say the transition from LMT to WET occurred 1911-05-24;
+# Willett says 1912-01-01.  Go with Willett.
+Zone	Europe/Lisbon	-0:36:32 -	LMT	1884
+			-0:36:32 -	LMT	1912 Jan  1  # Lisbon Mean Time
+			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1966 Apr  3 2:00
+			 1:00	-	CET	1976 Sep 26 1:00
+			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1983 Sep 25 1:00s
+			 0:00	W-Eur	WE%sT	1992 Sep 27 1:00s
+			 1:00	EU	CE%sT	1996 Mar 31 1:00u
+			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
+Zone Atlantic/Azores	-1:42:40 -	LMT	1884		# Ponta Delgada
+			-1:54:32 -	HMT	1911 May 24  # Horta Mean Time
+			-2:00	Port	AZO%sT	1966 Apr  3 2:00 # Azores Time
+			-1:00	Port	AZO%sT	1983 Sep 25 1:00s
+			-1:00	W-Eur	AZO%sT	1992 Sep 27 1:00s
+			 0:00	EU	WE%sT	1993 Mar 28 1:00u
+			-1:00	EU	AZO%sT
+Zone Atlantic/Madeira	-1:07:36 -	LMT	1884		# Funchal
+			-1:07:36 -	FMT	1911 May 24  # Funchal Mean Time
+			-1:00	Port	MAD%sT	1966 Apr  3 2:00 # Madeira Time
+			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1983 Sep 25 1:00s
+			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
+
+# Romania
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
+# <a href="http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html">
+# Nine O'clock</a> (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
+# 04:00 local time in fall 1998.  For lack of better info,
+# assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
+# the same year as Bulgaria.
+#
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Romania	1932	only	-	May	21	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Romania	1932	1939	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 0:00s	0	-
+Rule	Romania	1933	1939	-	Apr	Sun>=2	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Romania	1979	only	-	May	27	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Romania	1979	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Romania	1980	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Romania	1980	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Romania	1991	1993	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Romania	1991	1993	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Bucharest	1:44:24 -	LMT	1891 Oct
+			1:44:24	-	BMT	1931 Jul 24	# Bucharest MT
+			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1981 Mar 29 2:00s
+			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1991
+			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1994
+			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1997
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT
+
+# Russia
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.
+# Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
+# are from Andrey A. Chernov.  The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,
+# except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat
+# 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
+#
+# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
+# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
+# I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
+# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
+# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
+#
+# From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):
+# `MSK' and `MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
+# UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
+# The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor
+# (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.
+#
+# From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):
+# According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from
+# Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...
+# still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
+#
+# For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from
+# John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
+# News--often false--is spread by word of mouth.  A rumor that it was
+# time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
+# the rest of Russia for two weeks--even soldiers stationed here began
+# enforcing curfew at the wrong time.
+#
+# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):
+# There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in
+# UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade.  I start with the
+# SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan
+# until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok
+# since September 1997....  Although the Kuril Islands are
+# administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have
+# remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.
+#
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+#
+# Kaliningradskaya oblast'.
+Zone Europe/Kaliningrad	 1:22:00 -	LMT	1893 Apr
+			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
+			 2:00	Poland	CE%sT	1946
+			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			 2:00	Russia	EE%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			 3:00	-	EET
+#
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
+# Respublika Adygeya, Arkhangel'skaya oblast',
+# Belgorodskaya oblast', Bryanskaya oblast', Vladimirskaya oblast',
+# Vologodskaya oblast', Voronezhskaya oblast',
+# Respublika Dagestan, Ivanovskaya oblast', Respublika Ingushetiya,
+# Kabarbino-Balkarskaya Respublika, Respublika Kalmykiya,
+# Kalyzhskaya oblast', Respublika Karachaevo-Cherkessiya,
+# Respublika Kareliya, Respublika Komi,
+# Kostromskaya oblast', Krasnodarskij kraj, Kurskaya oblast',
+# Leningradskaya oblast', Lipetskaya oblast', Respublika Marij El,
+# Respublika Mordoviya, Moskva, Moskovskaya oblast',
+# Murmanskaya oblast', Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug,
+# Nizhegorodskaya oblast', Novgorodskaya oblast', Orlovskaya oblast',
+# Penzenskaya oblast', Pskovskaya oblast', Rostovskaya oblast',
+# Ryazanskaya oblast', Sankt-Peterburg,
+# Respublika Severnaya Osetiya, Smolenskaya oblast',
+# Stavropol'skij kraj, Tambovskaya oblast', Respublika Tatarstan,
+# Tverskaya oblast', Tyl'skaya oblast', Ul'yanovskaya oblast',
+# Chechenskaya Respublika, Chuvashskaya oblast',
+# Yaroslavskaya oblast'
+Zone Europe/Moscow	 2:30:20 -	LMT	1880
+			 2:30	-	MMT	1916 Jul  3 # Moscow Mean Time
+			 2:30:48 Russia	%s	1919 Jul  1 2:00
+			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1922 Oct
+			 2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
+			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			 2:00	Russia	EE%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			 4:00	-	MSK
+#
+# Astrakhanskaya oblast', Kirovskaya oblast', Saratovskaya oblast',
+# Volgogradskaya oblast'.  Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400
+# but Wikipedia (2006-05-09) says +0300.  Perhaps it switched after the
+# others?  But we have no data.
+Zone Europe/Volgograd	 2:57:40 -	LMT	1920 Jan  3
+			 3:00	-	TSAT	1925 Apr  6 # Tsaritsyn Time
+			 3:00	-	STAT	1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time
+			 4:00	-	STAT	1961 Nov 11
+			 4:00	Russia	VOL%sT	1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T
+			 3:00	Russia	VOL%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			 4:00	-	VOLT	1992 Mar 29 2:00s
+			 3:00	Russia	VOL%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			 4:00	-	VOLT
+#
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
+# Samarskaya oblast', Udmyrtskaya respublika
+Zone Europe/Samara	 3:20:36 -	LMT	1919 Jul  1 2:00
+			 3:00	-	SAMT	1930 Jun 21
+			 4:00	-	SAMT	1935 Jan 27
+			 4:00	Russia	KUY%sT	1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev
+			 3:00	Russia	KUY%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			 2:00	Russia	KUY%sT	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+			 3:00	-	KUYT	1991 Oct 20 3:00
+			 4:00	Russia	SAM%sT	2010 Mar 28 2:00s # Samara Time
+			 3:00	Russia	SAM%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			 4:00	-	SAMT
+
+#
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
+# Respublika Bashkortostan, Komi-Permyatskij avtonomnyj okrug,
+# Kurganskaya oblast', Orenburgskaya oblast', Permskaya oblast',
+# Sverdlovskaya oblast', Tyumenskaya oblast',
+# Khanty-Manskijskij avtonomnyj okrug, Chelyabinskaya oblast',
+# Yamalo-Nenetskij avtonomnyj okrug.
+Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg	 4:02:24 -	LMT	1919 Jul 15 4:00
+			 4:00	-	SVET	1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time
+			 5:00	Russia	SVE%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			 4:00	Russia	SVE%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+			 5:00	Russia	YEK%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			 6:00	-	YEKT	# Yekaterinburg Time
+#
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
+# Respublika Altaj, Altajskij kraj, Omskaya oblast'.
+Zone Asia/Omsk		 4:53:36 -	LMT	1919 Nov 14
+			 5:00	-	OMST	1930 Jun 21 # Omsk TIme
+			 6:00	Russia	OMS%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			 5:00	Russia	OMS%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+			 6:00	Russia	OMS%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			 7:00	-	OMST
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's
+# not clear when it switched from +7 to +6.
+# Novosibirskaya oblast', Tomskaya oblast'.
+Zone Asia/Novosibirsk	 5:31:40 -	LMT	1919 Dec 14 6:00
+			 6:00	-	NOVT	1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time
+			 7:00	Russia	NOV%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			 6:00	Russia	NOV%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+			 7:00	Russia	NOV%sT	1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
+			 6:00	Russia	NOV%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			 7:00	-	NOVT
+
+# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):
+# Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
+# March 28, 2010:
+# from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700
+# to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600
+#
+# This is according to Government of Russia decree # 740, on September
+# 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth
+# time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)
+#
+# Russian Government web site (Russian language)
+# <a href="http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archiv">
+# http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm
+# </a>
+# or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference
+# map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010
+# <a href="http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html">
+# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html
+# </a>
+#
+# Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010
+# Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.
+#
+# As a result, Kemerovo oblast' will be in the same time zone as
+# Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Barnaul and Altai Republic.
+
+Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk	 5:48:48 -	NMT	1920 Jan  6
+			 6:00	-	KRAT	1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
+			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			 6:00	Russia	KRA%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT	2010 Mar 28 2:00s
+			 6:00	Russia	NOV%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			 7:00	-	NOVT # Novosibirsk/Novokuznetsk Time
+
+#
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
+# Krasnoyarskij kraj,
+# Tajmyrskij (Dolgano-Nenetskij) avtonomnyj okrug,
+# Respublika Tuva, Respublika Khakasiya, Evenkijskij avtonomnyj okrug.
+Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk	 6:11:20 -	LMT	1920 Jan  6
+			 6:00	-	KRAT	1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
+			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			 6:00	Russia	KRA%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			 8:00	-	KRAT
+#
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
+# Respublika Buryatiya, Irkutskaya oblast',
+# Ust'-Ordynskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug.
+Zone Asia/Irkutsk	 6:57:20 -	LMT	1880
+			 6:57:20 -	IMT	1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
+			 7:00	-	IRKT	1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time
+			 8:00	Russia	IRK%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			 7:00	Russia	IRK%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+			 8:00	Russia	IRK%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			 9:00	-	IRKT
+#
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
+# Aginskij Buryatskij avtonomnyj okrug, Amurskaya oblast',
+# [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), Chitinskaya oblast'.
+
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
+# ...some regions of RUssia were merged with others since 2005...
+# Some names were changed, no big deal, except for one instance: a new name.
+# YAK/YAKST: UTC+9 Zabajkal'skij kraj.
+
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
+# The Sakha districts are: Aldanskij, Amginskij, Anabarskij,
+# Verkhnevilyujskij, Vilyujskij, Gornyj,
+# Zhiganskij, Kobyajskij, Lenskij, Megino-Kangalasskij, Mirninskij,
+# Namskij, Nyurbinskij, Olenyokskij, Olyokminskij,
+# Suntarskij, Tattinskij, Ust'-Aldanskij, Khangalasskij,
+# Churapchinskij, Eveno-Bytantajskij Natsional'nij.
+
+Zone Asia/Yakutsk	 8:38:40 -	LMT	1919 Dec 15
+			 8:00	-	YAKT	1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
+			 9:00	Russia	YAK%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			 8:00	Russia	YAK%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+			 9:00	Russia	YAK%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			 10:00	-	YAKT
+#
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
+# Evrejskaya avtonomnaya oblast', Khabarovskij kraj, Primorskij kraj,
+# [parts of] Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya).
+
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
+# The Sakha districts are: Bulunskij, Verkhoyanskij, Tomponskij, Ust'-Majskij,
+# Ust'-Yanskij.
+Zone Asia/Vladivostok	 8:47:44 -	LMT	1922 Nov 15
+			 9:00	-	VLAT	1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time
+			10:00	Russia	VLA%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			 9:00	Russia	VLA%sST	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+			10:00	Russia	VLA%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			11:00	-	VLAT
+#
+# Sakhalinskaya oblast'.
+# The Zone name should be Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
+Zone Asia/Sakhalin	 9:30:48 -	LMT	1905 Aug 23
+			 9:00	-	CJT	1938
+			 9:00	-	JST	1945 Aug 25
+			11:00	Russia	SAK%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T.
+			10:00	Russia	SAK%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+			11:00	Russia	SAK%sT	1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s
+			10:00	Russia	SAK%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			11:00	-	SAKT
+#
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2003-10-18): [This region consists of]
+# Magadanskaya oblast', Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya).
+# Probably also: Kuril Islands.
+
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
+# The Sakha districts are: Abyjskij, Allaikhovskij, Verkhhhnekolymskij, Momskij,
+# Nizhnekolymskij, Ojmyakonskij, Srednekolymskij.
+Zone Asia/Magadan	10:03:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
+			10:00	-	MAGT	1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
+			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			10:00	Russia	MAG%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			12:00	-	MAGT
+#
+# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25): [This region consists of]
+# Kamchatskaya oblast', Koryakskij avtonomnyj okrug.
+#
+# The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long.
+Zone Asia/Kamchatka	10:34:36 -	LMT	1922 Nov 10
+			11:00	-	PETT	1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time
+			12:00	Russia	PET%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			11:00	Russia	PET%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+			12:00	Russia	PET%sT	2010 Mar 28 2:00s
+			11:00	Russia	PET%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			12:00	-	PETT
+#
+# Chukotskij avtonomnyj okrug
+Zone Asia/Anadyr	11:49:56 -	LMT	1924 May  2
+			12:00	-	ANAT	1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time
+			13:00	Russia	ANA%sT	1982 Apr  1 0:00s
+			12:00	Russia	ANA%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+			11:00	Russia	ANA%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+			12:00	Russia	ANA%sT	2010 Mar 28 2:00s
+			11:00	Russia	ANA%sT	2011 Mar 27 2:00s
+			12:00	-	ANAT
+
+# Serbia
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Belgrade	1:22:00	-	LMT	1884
+			1:00	-	CET	1941 Apr 18 23:00
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
+			1:00	-	CET	1945 May 8 2:00s
+			1:00	1:00	CEST	1945 Sep 16  2:00s
+# Metod Kozelj reports that the legal date of
+# transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
+# Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj.
+			1:00	-	CET	1982 Nov 27
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana	# Slovenia
+Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica	# Montenegro
+Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo	# Bosnia and Herzegovina
+Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje	# Macedonia
+Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb	# Croatia
+
+# Slovakia
+Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
+
+# Slovenia
+# see Serbia
+
+# Spain
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+# For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1;
+# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Spain	1917	only	-	May	 5	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Spain	1917	1919	-	Oct	 6	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Spain	1918	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Spain	1919	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00s	1:00	S
+# Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Spain	1924	only	-	Apr	16	23:00s	1:00	S
+# Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Spain	1924	only	-	Oct	 4	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Spain	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
+# Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Spain	1926	1929	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Spain	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Spain	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Spain	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	S
+# Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13;
+# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Spain	1937	only	-	May	22	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Spain	1937	1939	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
+Rule	Spain	1938	only	-	Mar	22	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Spain	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Spain	1940	only	-	Mar	16	23:00s	1:00	S
+# Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Spain	1942	only	-	May	 2	22:00s	2:00	M # Midsummer
+Rule	Spain	1942	only	-	Sep	 1	22:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Spain	1943	1946	-	Apr	Sat>=13	22:00s	2:00	M
+Rule	Spain	1943	only	-	Oct	 3	22:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Spain	1944	only	-	Oct	10	22:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Spain	1945	only	-	Sep	30	 1:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Spain	1946	only	-	Sep	30	 0:00	0	-
+Rule	Spain	1949	only	-	Apr	30	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Spain	1949	only	-	Sep	30	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Spain	1974	1975	-	Apr	Sat>=13	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Spain	1974	1975	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Spain	1976	only	-	Mar	27	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Spain	1976	1977	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
+Rule	Spain	1977	1978	-	Apr	 2	23:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Spain	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
+# The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978.
+Rule SpainAfrica 1967	only	-	Jun	 3	12:00	1:00	S
+Rule SpainAfrica 1967	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
+Rule SpainAfrica 1974	only	-	Jun	24	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule SpainAfrica 1974	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	0	-
+Rule SpainAfrica 1976	1977	-	May	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule SpainAfrica 1976	only	-	Aug	 1	 0:00	0	-
+Rule SpainAfrica 1977	only	-	Sep	28	 0:00	0	-
+Rule SpainAfrica 1978	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
+Rule SpainAfrica 1978	only	-	Aug	 4	 0:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Madrid	-0:14:44 -	LMT	1901 Jan  1  0:00s
+			 0:00	Spain	WE%sT	1946 Sep 30
+			 1:00	Spain	CE%sT	1979
+			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
+Zone	Africa/Ceuta	-0:21:16 -	LMT	1901
+			 0:00	-	WET	1918 May  6 23:00
+			 0:00	1:00	WEST	1918 Oct  7 23:00
+			 0:00	-	WET	1924
+			 0:00	Spain	WE%sT	1929
+			 0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
+			 1:00	-	CET	1986
+			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
+Zone	Atlantic/Canary	-1:01:36 -	LMT	1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
+			-1:00	-	CANT	1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries Time
+			 0:00	-	WET	1980 Apr  6 0:00s
+			 0:00	1:00	WEST	1980 Sep 28 0:00s
+			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
+# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
+# Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.
+
+# Sweden
+
+# From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
+#
+# The law "Svensk forfattningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
+# From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
+# places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at
+# three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the
+# meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm".  The law is dated 1878-05-31.
+#
+# The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30"
+# eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time.  Less 12 minutes gives the
+# national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....
+#
+# About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
+# forfattningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
+# of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at
+# the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English
+# observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west
+# from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated
+# 1899-06-16.  In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
+# in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.
+#
+# 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk forfattningssamling 1916, no 124") states
+# that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is
+# pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....
+# Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
+#
+# The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish
+# Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are
+# not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
+# in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
+# "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
+# the Sok-button).
+#
+# (2001-05-13):
+#
+# I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00
+# summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show
+# 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time.  The article also reports that some
+# people thought the switch to standard time would take place already
+# at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
+# hour before the event took place.
+#
+# Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Stockholm	1:12:12 -	LMT	1879 Jan  1
+			1:00:14	-	SET	1900 Jan  1	# Swedish Time
+			1:00	-	CET	1916 May 14 23:00
+			1:00	1:00	CEST	1916 Oct  1 01:00
+			1:00	-	CET	1980
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Switzerland
+# From Howse:
+# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
+# and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep
+# mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 ....
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+# From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''):
+# Rule	Swiss	1940	only	-	Nov	 2	0:00	1:00	S
+# Rule	Swiss	1940	only	-	Dec	31	0:00	0	-
+# From Shanks & Pottenger:
+# Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	S
+# Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
+
+# From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17):
+# I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies.
+#
+# As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values
+# to be wrong. This is now verified.
+#
+# I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
+# government, in 'Eidgen[o]ssische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
+# federal law collection)...
+#
+# DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am
+# DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am.
+#
+# DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am
+# DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am
+#
+# There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully.
+# It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law
+# collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any
+# other years are made.
+#
+# Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported
+# about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous
+# night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such
+# a thing had happened in Switzerland.
+#
+# I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traite de
+# l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is
+# false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled
+# by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.
+#
+# The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to:
+# Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1  1:00    1:00    S
+# Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1  2:00    0       -
+#
+# The 1940 rules must be deleted.
+#
+# One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
+# most users of tzdata:
+# The zone file
+# Zone    Europe/Zurich   0:34:08 -       LMT     1848 Sep 12
+#                          0:29:44 -       BMT     1894 Jun #Bern Mean Time
+#                          1:00    Swiss   CE%sT   1981
+#                          1:00    EU      CE%sT
+# describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
+# the Cantone Geneve (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneve did not
+# follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.
+# To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	May	Mon>=1	1:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	Oct	Mon>=1	2:00	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Zurich	0:34:08 -	LMT	1848 Sep 12
+			0:29:44	-	BMT	1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time
+			1:00	Swiss	CE%sT	1981
+			1:00	EU	CE%sT
+
+# Turkey
+
+# From Amar Devegowda (2007-01-03):
+# The time zone rules for Istanbul, Turkey have not been changed for years now.
+# ... The latest rules are available at -
+# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=107
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-01-03):
+# I have been able to find press records back to 1996 which all say that
+# DST started 01:00 local time and end at 02:00 local time.  I am not sure
+# what happened before that.  One example for each year from 1996 to 2001:
+# http://newspot.byegm.gov.tr/arsiv/1996/21/N4.htm
+# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING97/03/97X03X25.TXT
+# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING98/03/98X03X02.HTM
+# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING99/10/99X10X26.HTM#%2016
+# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2000/03/00X03X06.HTM#%2021
+# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2001/03/23x03x01.HTM#%2027
+# From Paul Eggert (2007-01-03):
+# Prefer the above source to Shanks & Pottenger for time stamps after 1990.
+
+# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09):
+# Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC
+# start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07):
+# http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp
+# The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:
+# http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm
+# I was able to locate the following seemingly official document
+# (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:
+# http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm
+
+# From G&ouml;kdeniz Karada&#x011f; (2011-03-10):
+# 
+# According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer
+# time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.
+# This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th.
+# 
+# <a href="http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872">
+# http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872
+# </a>
+# Turkish:
+# <a href="http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373">
+# http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373
+# </a>
+
+# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
+Rule	Turkey	1916	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1920	only	-	Mar	28	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1920	only	-	Oct	25	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1921	only	-	Apr	 3	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1921	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1922	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1922	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
+# Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;
+# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Turkey	1924	only	-	May	13	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1924	1925	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1925	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Jun	30	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Oct	 5	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Dec	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1941	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1942	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+# Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1;
+# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
+Rule	Turkey	1942	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1945	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1946	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1946	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1947	1948	-	Apr	Sun>=16	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1947	1950	-	Oct	Sun>=2	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1949	only	-	Apr	10	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1950	only	-	Apr	19	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1951	only	-	Apr	22	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1951	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1962	only	-	Jul	15	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1962	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1964	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1964	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1970	1972	-	May	Sun>=2	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1970	1972	-	Oct	Sun>=2	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1973	only	-	Jun	 3	1:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1973	only	-	Nov	 4	3:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1974	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1974	only	-	Nov	 3	5:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1975	only	-	Mar	30	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1975	1976	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1976	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1977	1978	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1977	only	-	Oct	16	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1979	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	3:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1979	1982	-	Oct	Mon>=11	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1981	1982	-	Mar	lastSun	3:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1983	only	-	Jul	31	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1983	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1985	only	-	Apr	20	0:00	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1985	only	-	Sep	28	0:00	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1986	1990	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1986	1990	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1991	2006	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00s	1:00	S
+Rule	Turkey	1991	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
+Rule	Turkey	1996	2006	-	Oct	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+Zone	Europe/Istanbul	1:55:52 -	LMT	1880
+			1:56:56	-	IMT	1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
+			2:00	Turkey	EE%sT	1978 Oct 15
+			3:00	Turkey	TR%sT	1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time
+			2:00	Turkey	EE%sT	2007
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2011 Mar 27 1:00u
+			2:00	-	EET	2011 Mar 28 1:00u
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT
+Link	Europe/Istanbul	Asia/Istanbul	# Istanbul is in both continents.
+
+# Ukraine
+#
+# From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukranian Ministry of Justice,
+# via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
+# BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's goverment
+# regulations number 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says:
+# "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday
+# of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of
+# October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"
+
+# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
+# Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev.
+# "Kyiv" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
+# "Kiev" is more common in English.
+Zone Europe/Kiev	2:02:04 -	LMT	1880
+			2:02:04	-	KMT	1924 May  2 # Kiev Mean Time
+			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
+			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Sep 20
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1943 Nov  6
+			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
+			3:00	-	MSK	1990 Jul  1 2:00
+			2:00	-	EET	1992
+			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1995
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT
+# Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
+# "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
+# "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
+Zone Europe/Uzhgorod	1:29:12 -	LMT	1890 Oct
+			1:00	-	CET	1940
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct
+			1:00	1:00	CEST	1944 Oct 26
+			1:00	-	CET	1945 Jun 29
+			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
+			3:00	-	MSK	1990 Jul  1 2:00
+			1:00	-	CET	1991 Mar 31 3:00
+			2:00	-	EET	1992
+			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1995
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT
+# Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
+# "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
+# "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English.  Use the common English
+# spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in
+# portable Posix file names.
+Zone Europe/Zaporozhye	2:20:40 -	LMT	1880
+			2:20	-	CUT	1924 May  2 # Central Ukraine T
+			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
+			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Aug 25
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1943 Oct 25
+			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00
+			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1995
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT
+# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
+Zone Europe/Simferopol	2:16:24 -	LMT	1880
+			2:16	-	SMT	1924 May  2 # Simferopol Mean T
+			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
+			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Nov
+			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Apr 13
+			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
+			3:00	-	MSK	1990 Jul  1 2:00
+			2:00	-	EET	1992
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
+# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
+# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
+# Shanks (1999) says ``date of change uncertain'', but implies that it happened
+# sometime between the 1994 DST switches.  Shanks & Pottenger simply say
+# 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right.  For now, guess it
+# changed in May.
+			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1994 May
+# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
+			3:00	E-Eur	MSK/MSD	1996 Mar 31 3:00s
+			3:00	1:00	MSD	1996 Oct 27 3:00s
+# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
+# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
+			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1997
+			3:00	-	MSK	1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u
+			2:00	EU	EE%sT
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
+# the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
+# The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
+#
+# According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
+# uses the WE DST rules.  The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
+# Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
+# 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST).  It also claims that Turkey
+# switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
+# and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)
+
+# ...
+# Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
+# From: Tom Hofmann
+# ...
+#
+# ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
+# most European coun[tr]ies started DST.  Before that year, only
+# a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
+# to own national rules.  In 1981, however, DST started on
+# 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
+# years...
+# But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
+# than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
+# one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
+# lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now.
+#
+# Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
+# Soviet Union (as far as I know).
+#
+# Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
+# 4002 Basle, Switzerland
+# ...
+
+# ...
+# Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
+# From: Dik T. Winter
+# ...
+#
+# The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
+# After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
+# about DST in Europe.  I was able to find all from about 1969.
+#
+# ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
+# first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
+# In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
+# the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March.  And from 1982
+# the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
+# the Sov[i]et Union.  In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
+# dates...
+#
+# It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
+# Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
+# Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
+# all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
+# occurred, though not since 1982 I believe.  Another note: it is always
+# assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
+# case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
+# in advance of normal time.
+#
+# ...
+# dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
+# ...
+
+# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
+# ...
+# Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
+# Since 1978.  Change at midnight.
+# ...
+# Monaco: has same DST as France.
+# ...
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/components/timezone/factory	Thu Aug 04 11:29:10 2011 +0530
@@ -0,0 +1,11 @@
+# <pre>
+# @(#)factory	8.2
+# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
+# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
+
+# For companies who don't want to put time zone specification in
+# their installation procedures.  When users run date, they'll get the message.
+# Also useful for the "comp.sources" version.
+
+# Zone	NAME	GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT
+Zone	Factory	0	- "Local time zone must be set--see zic manual page"
--- /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
+++ b/components/timezone/northamerica	Thu Aug 04 11:29:10 2011 +0530
@@ -0,0 +1,3024 @@
+# <pre>
+# @(#)northamerica	8.42
+# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
+# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
+
+# also includes Central America and the Caribbean
+
+# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
+# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
+# [email protected] for general use in the future).
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-22):
+# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
+# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# United States
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31):
+# Howse writes (pp 121-125) that time zones were invented by
+# Professor Charles Ferdinand Dowd (1825-1904),
+# Principal of Temple Grove Ladies' Seminary (Saratoga Springs, NY).
+# His pamphlet ``A System of National Time for Railroads'' (1870)
+# was the result of his proposals at the Convention of Railroad Trunk Lines
+# in New York City (1869-10).  His 1870 proposal was based on Washington, DC,
+# but in 1872-05 he moved the proposed origin to Greenwich.
+# His proposal was adopted by the railroads on 1883-11-18 at 12:00,
+# and the most of the country soon followed suit.
+
+# From Paul Eggert (2005-04-16):
+# That 1883 transition occurred at 12:00 new time, not at 12:00 old time.
+# See p 46 of David Prerau, Seize the daylight, Thunder's Mouth Press (2005).
+